Ask a Scholar: What is the True Definition of Latino?

Oct 12, 2010 |  Dario Fernandez-Morera

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Ask a Scholar: What is the True Definition of Latino?

Oct 12, 2010 | 

Dario Fernandez-Morera

Dear Ask a Scholar,

What is the True Definition of Latino? Many say its just Latin American people, others say and I believe as well that "Latino" means anyone whose language derived from Latin; Hispanics, Portuguese speaking people, French and Italian. I need someone to clarify the actual meaning and history of the word.

-Jorge Martinez, University of South Florida

Answered by Dario Fernandez-Morera, Associate Professor of Spanish & Portuguese at Northwestern University. Dr. Fernandez-Morera received his Ph.D. in Comparative Literature from Harvard University. He has published books and articles in English and Spanish in the United States, England, and Spain on cultural issues and theory, Cervantes, sixteenth and seventeenth-century Spanish prose and fiction, modern Spanish poetry, the encounter between Europeans and Amerindians, Modernism, and contemporary political events in Latin America. Fernández-Morera has served in the National Council on the Humanities and as a consultant and reader for the National Endowment for the Humanities.

The word latino is a Spanish word that has entered the English language. In Spanish, it means someone belonging to the people of ancient Latium, in Italy, whose language was Latin; so the Romans of course were latinos. Another and related meaning of latino in Spanish refers to someone who belongs to the cultures of the Romance Languages, that is, those peoples whose language, and to a varying extent, whose culture, too, derive from the language and civilization of Rome, which was latin. Among these Romance languages are Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Rumanian. Therefore, all Italians, Frenchmen, Spaniards, Rumanians, and Portuguese, as well as all those Latin Americans whose language is Spanish or Portuguese (an English-speaking person from Jamaica would not qualify) are latinos. This last meaning can be found in the English language as well, in the English word “Latin,” when used in some contexts; thus famous “Latin” performers have been Rodolfo Valentino and Carmen Miranda. In this context, the English word “Latin” has carried a certain aura of joix de vivre, or of sexuality, sometimes to the point of caricature and satire.

However, the Spanish word latino has narrowed its meaning when used in English untranslated as “Latin.” This narrowing was clinched when the United States government adopted the term latino officially in 1997 to complement the English word “Hispanic,” which until then had been used to classify, or rather, attempt to classify, people living in the United States who were Spanish speakers, or belonged to a household where Spanish was spoken, or who were somehow of Spanish heritage, or who self-identified with Spanish ancestry or descent. Now, with the use of the word “Latino,” with a capital, this bureaucratic category has been enlarged to include people of non-Spanish descent if they so wish to be categorized. Basically, anyone who can somehow justify the claim, can now claim to be a “latino” for bureaucratic purposes, and many do so in order to reap various forms of government benefits reserved for particular collectives, or “identity groups.”

In addition, the word Latino now serves to categorize those people who come from Latin America, or descend from people from Latin America, where the spoken language is Spanish, but who are not happy with a noun such as “Hispanic,” which is too redolent of Spain, a country to which many of those formerly categorized as “Hispanics” do not want to be connected. This is the case, for example, of some residents of Mexican descent in the United States, who do not want to be called “Hispanics,” but “Latinos.” One reason given is to have their own collective identity separate from that of other collective identities somehow associated with Spain and its heritage. Another possible reason is a desire to be associated with the Mexica (“Aztec”) culture, which was defeated by the Spaniards, and which is frequently and justifiably extolled for its numerous accomplishments and virtues. Given this desire, it is irrelevant that the Aztec culture was one among many indigenous cultures of ancient Mexico; or that the Aztecs subjugated and ruthlessly exploited many of these cultures, and that this was the reason so many indigenous nations in ancient Mexico readily allied themselves with the Spanish conquerors to get rid of Aztec rule; or that most Mexicans today probably have no genetic connection to the Aztec; or that many Mexicans today have as many European genes as they have Amerindian genes.

In the American universities, the term “Latino” has served a different, though perhaps related purpose: to designate programs of study developed by analogy with such programs as “African-American Studies,” and “Women’s Studies” (now more commonly and wisely re-designated as “Gender Studies,” a term that allows the incorporation of more customers to the program while also widening the field covered by the term in order to study other areas, usually from the point of view of non-heterosexuality). The predecessor of "Latino Studies" was "Chicano Studies," created by university administrators in California under pressure from activist university students; and for the same reason "Women's Studies" morphed into "Gender Studies," so "Chicano Studies" morphed into "Latino Studies," helped again by university administrators' response to activist university students, principally of Mexican and Puerto Rican descent or origin. These “Latino Studies” programs have carved for their practitioners a niche in the competition for scarce university resources, students, tenure-line positions, and office space. The texts read in their courses are written mostly in English, and involve the lives and customs of people living in the United States, although their vocabulary may include here and there words in Spanish. Nevertheless, the faculty teaching these texts written mostly in English frequently end up as part of established departments of Spanish or of “Hispanic Studies,” since English departments often show themselves reluctant to host, even in part, the faculty of “Latino Studies.”


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Cristina

| August 17, 2014 - 12:44 PM


Found article very enlightening.  Much more detailed than the e-mail from Library of Congress.

As a Portuguese born American, I prefer to be called Luzo-American.

Jack

| August 29, 2015 - 2:00 PM


Question, Why is the United States of America referred to as being, of America, when it should be referred to as, coming from the British Empire, and not the Spanish Empire which America designates. The Spanish conquistadors were here long before the English established their colonies.

GerBear

| April 29, 2016 - 8:39 PM


This article fails to address Phillipinoes. They speak Spanish but are Asian.

Al Rex

| June 07, 2016 - 8:40 AM


We cannot allow “Hispanics” to usurp the legitimate, linguistic and cultural identity of the Italians. The term Latino has a 2000 year-old meaning and cannot be trampled upon by Spanish-speaking people of the Americas just because they are in search of a lesser “offensive” identification.It’s not Latino, it’s Latin American to begin with. Additionally,we identify ourselves by our races and not by the location We came from or by the origins of our languages and these are the races:White,Black,Asian and Red-Skin Indian or a mixing of it. “Hispanics” must do the same, no exception.
These are the legitimate Latins/Latinos:Italians, French,Romanians,Portuguese and Spaniards. People from Latin America are Latin Americans with No Latin culture.Everything Latin/Latino,the Latin People,the Latin Language and the Latin Culture all comes from Italy and not from Spain and not from Latin America. “Hispanics” here cannot twist history.

Brown_Hammer

| April 02, 2017 - 3:41 PM


Al Rex sounds very upset. Also sounds like hee is Italian? Among the “true Latinos” you claim are the Spaniards and the Portuguese. Both of who came to Latin America and widely spread their genes around. So, there is probably plenty of “true Latino” genes in the gene pool to justify the term. So, stop being elitist.

Juan Mendes

| June 27, 2017 - 3:52 PM


I agree that Latino is an American word and its meaning is different than Latino is it may have been used in Europe.

Languages evolve, Alex needs to accept it.

I like to use Latino meaning Latin American. I’m Brazilian, not Hispanic, but Latino.

Just my two cents

Zohair

| August 10, 2017 - 3:22 AM


The encounter’s between Europeans, Modernism, and temporary political party event’s in the Latin America…
professional website design service

Pete Costelino

| September 15, 2017 - 2:58 PM


As Noted !
These are the legitimate Latins/Latinos:Italians, French,Romanians,Portuguese and Spaniards. People from Latin America are Latin Americans with No Latin culture.Everything Latin/Latino,the Latin People,the Latin Language and the Latin Culture all comes from Italy and not from Spain and not from Latin America. “Hispanics” here cannot “TWIST HISTORY!!.

Bella Note

| October 15, 2017 - 9:43 AM


So if we are speaking of Romance languages & latin culture, that means French Speaking Haitians are Latino and French, spanish, Portuguese speaking Africans are also Latino. And the Vietnamese who speak French. All the places that got colonized by the Latin language & culture spreaders are Latino?

Juan Mendes

| November 16, 2017 - 12:58 PM


My point is that in America, Latino does not mean Latin. It’s short for Latino Americano, which is how Brazilians refer to countries in the American continent that speak a Latin Language. The French speaking countries are not usually included in that, so I realize it’s not a perfect definition. I’m just saying that’s how I hear it used.

Randi joh ston

| January 16, 2018 - 4:18 PM


I agree if it was the Romans in Italy than it is Italians that have the right to be called latinos the rest are a bunch of mixed raced people who are not LaTino.sorry but its true.  Yea im Italian and I am LATINA . Then you have a fairytale land called Latin America. There is no Rome in America Just because you have people from their made up Wanna be latin countries roaming all over thecontinent does not make it A latin origin sorry again

Bob Roberts

| January 25, 2018 - 12:52 AM


Everyone in this discussion (including the author) is being elitist. Anyone claiming to be of the “True Latino” society is full of hogwash. We are all descended from common stock, and the external differences are the results of our societies, environment and climate, not of our location of origin (which is the same for every human on the planet) or what language our ancestors spoke.

Representatives of every demographic on the planet has journeyed outside their own “home territory. Societies have expanded, collapsed, and intermingled since man began to venture a few miles form his cave in search of food, water, trade, or freedom.

Don’t believe me? Have your DNA tested, the first one that can prove they are of only one “heritage” as described here in this discussion will have proved me wrong, but there’s no one here that can do that.

Petric

| February 07, 2018 - 3:46 PM


“Latino” is a misnomer like the name of “Indians” for original inhabitants of the American continent. Somebody gave these names without scientific knowledge. And now is hard to make the corrections.

Carmine Roseli

| March 04, 2018 - 1:14 PM


The fact remains that Italians are the original Latino people. To say that Latin America doesn’t have Latin culture is foolishness. Though they are mix people the children of the conquers (spain) still are there and a piece of the culture is there for their language is a valid stamp that Latin culture is there.  Italians are a muttered people themselves from the Moors and the Judeans of ancient times. The new age Latinos act as though they are Latinos and no one else is also is very baffling, however, the uneducated rush in where wise people do not.

Profe O

| October 13, 2018 - 9:20 PM


It is apparent that the term “Latino” has morphed over time. This sociopolitical situation and self-identification of groups of people using the term and of governments impact this.  There are definitely roots of the term in the Roman Empire cultures/ Romance languages.  Language, as a conveyer and reflector of culture, is one part of identification.  So there are Latinos in Europe, (Italians, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Romanians), the Americas (anyone who claims ancestry or identification with the aforementioned groups), Africa ( most of the Portuguese-speaking population in the world is in Africa and there is Equatorial Guinea, part of Morroco that speak Spanish), and Asia (Macau and the Philipines).  We definitely have far more intersectionality than ever now.

Petric

| October 13, 2018 - 10:59 PM


Do not try to label Latin culture with the ethnonym of “Latino”!
You do not call French,Italians, Spanish, Portuguese,Romanians, “Latino”
A bureaucratic solution is not a scientific solution.

Regni

| February 10, 2019 - 2:05 PM


Renato, you are on the wrong site. Your suburban vocabulary is very convincing.

Alessio Ventura

| February 22, 2019 - 10:27 PM


Of course the ancient tribes of Latium, central Italy or Lazio, is the true origin of the latini. The indian tribes of south america, central america, and mexico are NOT latini. Somehow they coopted the term simply because they speak spanish as a result of the spanish conquests, but let’s not kid ourselves..Italians are the true latins, or latini in the plural. C’mon.

Alessio Ventura

| February 22, 2019 - 10:35 PM


Of course Italians of Latium (Lazio) origin are the true “Latini” which is plural for Latino.  https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latins

The indian tribes of the Americas, such as the amcestors of Aztecs, Messicani, and so on are NOT Latini.  Somehow, however, anyone who speaks Spanish and who is from tje Americas is now considered “Latino”, which is throughly erroneous.

I am insulted when asked to check “White, non-Latino” when filling out forms in America.  I am from Lazio, Italia, a descendant of the Volsci tribe of Latium, which means I am 100% Latino.  I have very dark olive skin to boot.

So, why does everyone tell me not to check “Latino” on forms in themUSA?

BRIANA CIBELLIE

| March 13, 2019 - 12:59 PM


The term Latin Latino Latina has become a very corrupt term especially in north America NO the people of south/central descent are not any where close to being Latin latino Latina at all I am A TRUE LATINA I COME FROM TRUE LATIN CULTURE IT IS MY BLOOD MY DNA I COME FROM THE ILLYRIAN TRIBE THE ALBANIANS, WHO ARE CONSIDERED ON OF THE VERY FIRST OLDEST AND LARGEST ITALIAN LATIN TRIBES. I WILL PROTEST IN FRONT OF THE WHITE HOUSE TO BRING JUSTICE TO MY LATIN BLOOD MY Latin culture that has been defaced in the Americas my fools. I take no time to correct someone who has started to believe that they too are now latins latinos Latinas because DESPITE OF ETHNICITY that is what the U.S government consideres people from south/central America which is what LATINO means in North America it means latino American DESPITE of your ethnicity this is complete defacement of Italians THE LATINS of our culture which is nothing new in north America. latino americano is NOT A COUNTRY so m=no they’re not latin americans its is a conquered gterritory by the latin European states after the roman empire fell the European states themselves not being the latinos but being Latinized by the ITALIANS. people from south/central America think that because the foolish Bigotry of the north American government considers them latino despite of their ethnic origin that they too are now latino not only do they think that they are latin despite ethnicity they think theyre the latino/a community in general it is NOT OK BECAUSE BY NO MEANS IS SOUTH/ CENTRAL AMERICANS THE LATIN TRIBE DEFEND YOUR OWN CULTURE YOURE NOT THE LATINO VOICE WE ARE. DONT WORRY TRUE LATS TOGETHER AS A TRIBE OF UNITY WE WILL CLAIM OUR CULTURE BACK TO ORDER.

Briana cibelli

| April 03, 2019 - 12:01 PM


Italo Albanian as well as Sicilian the majority of Italians aka Latins are mixed OUR mixture is what makes us the Latins yes with African oriental middle easter and Italian which is originally the Etruscan tribe the Etruscan tribe was non indo European they later became Latin after other Latin tribes due to the Latin league at the end of the day true Italians the Latins we tend to look very much alike because of SAME ETHNIC TRAITS that is what Latin is it is ethnic non white Italian culture that you personally received yourself threw DNA ya pretty simple unless you’re just brainwashed