The Civics Alliance: Open Letter and Curriculum Statement

National Association of Scholars

Editor's Note: The National Association of Scholars is proud to announce The Civics Alliance, a new coalition of education reformers, policymakers, and concerned citizens dedicated to preserving traditional civics education against the threat of New Civics. What follows is an open letter announcing the Alliance, our Civics Curriculum Statement, and the list of signatories. To join The Civics Alliance as a signatory, click here. To learn more about why we formed the Alliance, click here to read an explanatory article. To take immediate action to support traditional civics education, click here to view our toolkit.

Signatories of the Civics Alliance Open Letter and Curriculum Statement sign as individuals. Organizational affiliations and positions are listed for identification purposes only.

Join The Civics Alliance


The teaching of American civics in our schools faces a grave new risk. Proponents of programs such as action civics seek to turn the traditional subject of civics into a recruitment tool of the progressive left.

We write to express our objection to this subornation of civics education and to dedicate ourselves to joint work to restore true civics instruction, which teaches American students to comprehend aspects of American government such as the rule of law, the Bill of Rights, elections, elected office, checks and balances, equality under the law, trial by jury, grand juries, civil rights, and military service. American students should learn from these lessons the founding principles of the United States, the structure of our self-governing republic, the functions of government at all levels, and how our key institutions work.

In 2012, the U.S. Department of Education issued A Crucible Moment: College Learning and Democracy’s Future (2012), a report which called for a “New Civics” to replace the traditional approach. This new form of civics sidelines instruction on the responsibilities of American citizenship, and instead emphasizes identity politics, highly contestable forms of environmental activism, and a commitment to global citizenship. The New Civics, or “action civics,” replaces classroom civics instruction with political commitment, protest, and vocational training in progressive activism. It does so with the support of the Federal Government and through a host of private organizations such as Generation Citizen and iCivics.

Since 2019 the New Civics advocates have become much bolder. In August 2019, the New York Times launched “The 1619 Project,” which called for “reframing” all of American history (and civics) as the story of white supremacy and black subjection. The 1619 Project’s advocates brag that tens of thousands of students in all 50 states have used its curriculum resources and that “five school systems adopted the project at broad scale.” Not every advocate of action civics supports the 1619 Project, but the 1619 Project Curriculum already promotes action civics lesson plans. Action civics is taking over our K-12 civics and history classrooms. Activists in states such as Massachusetts and Illinois now seek to impose action civics on teachers and students by state law and through mandates by state departments of education.

We oppose all racism and support traditional American pluralism, e pluribus unum—out of many, one. These beliefs are not those of the radical New Civics activists, which espouse identity politics with overlapping ideologies of critical race theory, multiculturalism, and so-called “antiracism.” Unfortunately, these dogmas would ruin our country by destroying our unity, our liberty, and the national culture that sustains them. They have replaced traditional civics, where historical dates and documents are taught, with a New Civics based on the new tribalism of identity politics. Their favored pedagogy is service-learning, alternately called action civics, civic engagement, civic learning, community engagement, project-based civics, and global civics. These all replace civics literacy with a form of left-wing activism that adapts techniques from Alinsky-style community organizing for use in the classroom.

The New Civics has already advanced in America’s education system to a far greater extent than most people realize. It has succeeded partly because it has received unwitting support from those who fail to see the many wolves in sheep’s clothing. Well-intentioned reformers must not collaborate with those promoting an ideology that would destroy America. They should not endorse supposedly nonpartisan New Civics education that is really left-wing activism in disguise. They must instead work for true civics education that explicitly excludes the imposter New Civics and its favored pedagogies.

We endorse the general principles of the Civics Curriculum Statement below and we ask our fellow citizens to join us in working to restore American civics education according to its principles. Some of the signatories prefer different programmatic specifics, such as curriculum standards and testing controlled at the local level rather than the state level. Independent commissions are favored by some but not others. We endorse the Civics Curriculum Statement as a series of exploratory options designed to inspire initiatives by states, local communities, schools, and patriotic citizens, rather than as a binding legislative program. The concern that unites us is the need for legislation that prevents New Civics from retaining any power within America’s schools.

CIVICS CURRICULUM STATEMENT

INTRODUCTION

Whereas

  • Ever shrinking numbers of American high school graduates and college graduates know crucial facts of the history of the American republic, such as the date of our nation’s founding with the Declaration of Independence, the date or context of the Emancipation Proclamation, The Gettysburg Address, or the speech, I Have a Dream;
  • Ever shrinking numbers of American high school graduates and college graduates know the framework of the United States Constitution or principles such as federalism, separation of powers, checks and balances, or the Bill of Rights; and
  • Instead of this factual and historical knowledge, American students are being subjected to a relentless form of anti-American propaganda teaching that the United States is a uniquely evil and racist country, by means of deceptively named theories and pedagogies such as Action Civics, Anti-Racism, Critical Race Theory, Globalist Civics, and Neo-Marxist forms of “Social Justice” Activism;

We call on all Americans to insist that their local institutions of public education adopt real and rigorous civics education, in both K-12 schools and state universities, and to exclude from these institutions the pseudo-civic education that instills hostility to America and its heritage.

This real civics education will be based on instilling knowledge of historical documents such as the Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution and will teach foundational principles of our limited and representative government such as federalism and the separation of powers. It will ban the teaching of political activism and will prepare our young people to become informed citizens in a self-governing republic who respect the differing political viewpoints of fellow Americans.

K-8 CIVICS CURRICULUM

Elementary and middle schools should lay the foundations for knowledge of American geography, history, and government. English Language Arts and Social Studies should include substantial coverage of admirable Americans, such as Benjamin Franklin, George Washington, Frederick Douglass, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Abraham Lincoln, who will inspire young Americans to love their country.

HIGH SCHOOL CIVICS CURRICULUM

The 9-12 Civics Curriculum should include:

  1. a one-year course on the history and structure of the American government. This course should include and test for knowledge on documents such as the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, extracts from the Federalist Papers, and the Emancipation Proclamation.
  2. a one-year course on American history from the Mayflower to the present. This sequence should include significant material on the War of Independence and the Constitutional Founding. Throughout, it should be designed to include significant biographical material on exemplary Americans—civic heroes—and to provide both our constitutional history and its historical context. For example, materials and teaching on slavery should situate the American practice of slavery within the pervasive practice of slavery throughout human history and mention how exceptional was the American abolitionist movement.
  3. A ban on political activism. The 9-12 Civics Curriculum should contain exclusively academic instruction and should ban any form of political activism, with no credit for and no encouragement of service-learning, civic engagement, action civics, or any cognate activity.

COLLEGE BOARD

The College Board’s AP United States Government and Politics Advanced Placement Examination now asks students to complete a Project Requirement of action civics. No high school class should teach an Advanced Placement class that requires action civics; no state money should fund taking advanced placement tests that require action civics; no public university should give credit to courses that require action civics.

HIGH SCHOOL CIVICS ASSESSMENT

All public K-12 students should take a culminating civic literacy examination that was developed independently (i.e., not by the local school or classroom teacher). Such tests, which could cover both American history and American government, would provide a means of assessing civics instruction in the high school, and would provide information that colleges can use to determine whether incoming students possess sufficient civics literacy to take a college-level course.

COLLEGE CIVICS LITERACY TEST: MATRICULATION

Each state should require all incoming students at public universities to take a civics literacy test, for which the high school civics examination described above can substitute, to determine whether they possess basic civic literacy. Students who have not passed that test must take a remedial civics literacy course that will cover the material they should have learned in high school. Students who have completed this course must take the civics literacy test again and will not be allowed to graduate, or progress to more advanced civics instruction, until they pass this test.

COLLEGE CIVICS CURRICULUM

Each state should integrate a college civics curriculum into their public university General Education Requirements. The College Civics Curriculum should include:

  1. two semesters of European history, from Periclean Athens to the present, which highlight the historical development of republics and democracies, and the intellectual, social, and cultural developments that have sustained the birth of free nations in Europe. These courses should also fulfill distribution requirements in the Humanities.
  2. two semesters of United States history, providing an undergraduate-level survey. These courses should also fulfill distribution requirements in the Social Sciences.
  3. two semesters of United States government, fostering students’ ability to engage in intelligent discussion and argument about the core political texts of our republic, and to integrate associated historical material as a supplement (but not a replacement) to close reading of these texts’ actual words. The two courses in the United States government sequence should consist of:
  1. The American Founding. This course should focus on the texts and debates of the period between 1763 and 1796. It should include extracts from philosophical inspirations, such as the works of Locke and Montesquieu; revolutionary polemics by figures such as John Adams and Thomas Paine; close discussion of the work of Thomas Jefferson, including the Declaration of Independence and the Notes on the State of Virginia; the Constitution; the Federalist Papers; the Bill of Rights; and George Washington’s Farewell Address (1796).
  1. The American Debate. This course should focus on the political debate among the different heirs to the Founding Fathers, and the debate’s institutionalization in the party system. This course should include material on the Jacksonian challenge to the remnants of social and political deference in America; the crisis of slavery and secession that led to the Civil War and reshaped America’s constitutional order; the Progressive and New Deal re-modelings of the constitution; a survey of contending philosophies of constitutional interpretation; and a parallel survey of notable judicial decisions from Marbury v. Madison (1803) to District of Columbia v. Heller (2008).

These courses should also fulfill distribution requirements in the Social Sciences.

This College Civics Curriculum should contain exclusively academic instruction, with no credit for and no encouragement of service-learning, civic engagement, action civics, or any cognate activity.

DUAL-COURSE CREDIT, CORE TRANSFER CURRICULUM, AND MUTUAL RECOGNITION AMONG STATES

All courses in the College Civics Curriculum should be available for high school students, both as dual courses taught in public K-12 schools and as dual credit courses in community colleges. All courses in the College Civics Curriculum should be incorporated into a Core Transfer Curriculum, to allow students to transfer credit easily among public institutions. Different states should review the courses in their College Civics Curricula and allow students to transfer course credit between different state university systems.

COLLEGE CIVICS LITERACY TEST: GRADUATION

Each state should require all graduating students at public universities to take a civics literacy test. Students who have failed this test must take the civics literacy test again and will not be allowed to graduate until they pass this test.

TEACHING LICENSURE

Teachers in state public schools who teach English or Social Studies must have passed all six (6) courses in the College Civics Curriculum, taught by the college of liberal arts and not in schools of education.

PERSONNEL

Each state legislature should create two commissions, both independent of the state board of education and the state department of education, one to create state civics standards and one to enforce them. One of these commissions, composed of national and local scholars who support traditional, academic civic education, should develop civics curriculum standards and assessments that meet the requirements outlined here for rigorous and real civics education. The second commission, also composed of national and local scholars who support traditional, academic civic education, should be empowered to investigate and report upon administrative and classroom practice, to ensure that the required civics curriculum standards are being observed and put into practice.

PEDAGOGICAL PRINCIPLES

The civics curriculum throughout should focus on educating students exclusively on the academic content of civics. The courses should not be exercises in partisanship or ventures in social activism. Students will study primary sources throughout and read serious secondary books and articles in quantities appropriate for college-level courses. They will learn the tools of analysis and critique and be able to converse and argue about any key idea in both oral and written forms. While these courses will go into depth on the topics of how our government works and why it is organized as it is, they must also aim to help students acquire some of the civic virtues that higher education is especially suited to provide, especially the ability to engage in civil debate. Civics classes must teach these virtues and capacities because legal protections of rights in a free republic ultimately depend on a cultural consensus that must be transmitted to each new generation. This consensus includes individual liberty for every citizen, especially with respect to political speech and conscience. When such traditions decay in everyday life, purely governmental protections risk becoming a dead letter.

NO ACTION CIVICS

No funds disbursed by a state may fund, facilitate, or in any way support any “Service-learning,” “Service-learning Coordinator,” or “Service Sponsor,” as defined in 42 U.S.C. §12511(40, 41, 42) (Definitions: Service-learning, Service-learning Coordinator, Service Sponsor). This ban should be broadened as necessary to prevent funding of civic engagement, action civics, or any cognate activity.

FEDERALISM

The different states should each adopt their own version of this Civics Curriculum. The federal government should play no role in this effort and no state should accept federal funding for the Civics Curriculum, since such funding inevitably entails federal regulation and control. Neither should a compact of the states attempt to subvert federalism by establishing a monolithic, effectively national Civics Curriculum. The mutual recognition of state Civics Curricula to allow course credit transfer between different state university systems, for example, should not inhibit each state’s ability to set its own Civics Curriculum.

LOCAL CONTROL

Any state-level education bureaucracy or assessment may itself be captured by radical activists. State-level Civics Curriculum reforms therefore should grant authority to local school boards and independent charter schools to adopt or develop their own K-12 civics curricula and assessments.

SPIRIT

The civics curriculum throughout should emphasize tensions among ideals within the constitutional system—how different liberties can conflict, how some may be irreconcilable, and how some are subject to compromise that leaves mutual dissatisfaction among contending parties.

The civics curriculum, in other words, should teach students to understand their opponents, to live with their political to-do lists unfulfilled, and, most importantly, to understand that true civic engagement includes an appreciation for the constitutional order, whose preservation should be deemed a virtue outweighing any substantive political goal—save only the imperative to preserve every American’s inherent and inalienable liberties, which the Constitution is intended to secure, but did not create.


INITIAL SIGNATORIES

J. Christian Adams, President, Public Interest Legal Foundation

Dean Allen, President, FreedomSource University

Michael Anton, Senior Fellow, Claremont Institute

Mark Bauerlein, Senior Editor, First Things

Jeremy Beer, Chairman, American Ideas Institute

Chris Buskirk, Publisher, American Greatness

Victoria Coates, Senior Fellow, Center for Security Policy

Tanya Ditty, Vice President of Field Operations, Concerned Women for America

Brandon Dutcher, Senior Vice President, Oklahoma Council of Public Affairs

Will Fitzhugh, Founder and Editor, The Concord Review

John Fonte, Senior Fellow and Director of the Center for American Common Culture, Hudson Institute

Jamie Gass, Director of the Center for School Reform, Pioneer Institute

David Goldman, Columnist, Asia Times and PJ Media

Katharine Gorka, Director of the Feulner Institute's Center for Civil Society and the American Dialogue, Heritage Foundation

Mary Grabar, Resident Fellow, The Alexander Hamilton Institute for Western Civilization

Mark Henrie, President, Arthur N. Rupe Foundation

John Hinderaker, President, Center of the American Experiment

Deal Hudson, Publisher, The Christian Review

Christopher C. Hull, Senior Fellow, Americans for Intelligence Reform

Christina Jeffrey, President, U.S. Allegiance Institute

S. T. Karnick, Director of Publications, Heartland Institute

Sheryl Kaufman, Corporate Chief Economist (Retired), Phillips Petroleum Company

Katherine Kersten, Senior Policy Fellow, Center of the American Experiment

Roger Kimball, Editor and Publisher, The New Criterion

Stanley Kurtz, Senior Fellow, Ethics and Public Policy Center

Michael Ledeen, Freedom Scholar, Foundation for Defense of Democracies

George Leef, Director of Editorial Content, The James G. Martin Center for Academic Renewal

Thomas Lindsay, Distinguished Senior Fellow of Higher Education and Constitutional Studies, Texas Public Policy Foundation

Clare M. Lopez, Founder/President, Lopez Liberty LLC

Glenn Loury, Merton P. Stoltz Professor of the Social Sciences, Brown University

Sue Lucas-Peterson, State Representative, South Dakota

Wilfred McClay, G.T. and Libby Blankenship Chair in the History of Liberty, University of Oklahoma

Allen Mendenhall, Associate Dean, Troy University, Sorrell College of Business

Arthur Milikh, Executive Director, The Claremont Institute, Center for the American Way of Life

Nicole Neily, President and Founder, Parents Defending Education

Alain Oliver, Chief Executive Officer, Love and Fidelity Network

Robert Paquette, President, The Alexander Hamilton Institute for the Study of Western Civilization

Duke Pesta, Director, FreedomProject Academy

Matthew Peterson, Vice President of Education, The Claremont Institute; Editor, The American Mind

Pete Peterson, Dean, Pepperdine University, Pepperdine School of Public Policy

Shawn Peterson, President, Catholic Education Partners

Julie Ponzi, Senior Editor, American Greatness

Joy Pullman, Executive Editor, The Federalist

Paul Rahe, Charles O. Lee and Louise K. Lee Chair in Western Heritage, Hillsdale College

Theodore Rebarber, CEO, American Achievement Testing

Sandy Rios, Director of Governmental Affairs, American Family Association

Jane Robbins, Senior Fellow (retired), American Principles Project

Jenna Robinson, President, The James G. Martin Center for Academic Renewal

Christopher Rufo, Director, Center on Wealth and Poverty

Eunie Smith, President Emeritus, Eagle Forum

Terry Stoops, Director of the Center for Effective Education, John Locke Foundation

Sandra Stotsky, 21st Century Chair in Teacher Quality, Professor Emerita, University of Arkansas

Kevin Stuart, Executive Director, Austin Institute

Jeremy Tate, Founder/CEO, Classic Learning Test

Virginia Thomas, President, Liberty Consulting

Keith Whitaker, Chairman, National Association of Scholars

Ryan Williams, President, The Claremont Institute

Peter Wood, President, National Association of Scholars

Robert Woodson, Founder and President, Woodson Center

Wenyuan Wu, Executive Director, Californians for Equal Rights

Scott Yenor, Washington Fellow, Claremont Institute Center for the American Way of Life; Professor of Political Science, Boise State University

SIGNATORIES

Jordan Adams, K-12 Associate Director of Instructional Resources, Hillsdale College

Rafael Algarin

Lynn Allinson

Anthony Anadio, Visiting Assistant Professor, Empire State College

Christine Andersen, Former High School Teacher

Cindy Anderson

James Anderson, Member, Emeritus, East Lyme, Connecticut Board of Education

Nancy Andersen

Maria Andrianou

George Andrie

Renee Arena

Hal Arkes, Professor Emeritus

Fritz Asche, Teacher, Jesuit College Prep Dallas

Daniel Asia, Professor, University of Arizona

Rania Assily, Assistant Professor of History, Cuyahoga Community College

Sondria Atkin

Peter Austin, Independent Scholar, Director of The 1960s Project

Dianna Avila

Scott Babcox

Melia Bailey

Jeanne Baker

JP Baker

Sharon Balje

Leigh Banducci

Ron Banks, Executive Director, The Leadership Foundation for American Values

Brian Barbour, Professor of English, Emeritus, Providence College

Travis Barnhart

Paul Bartow, Ph.D. Candidate, University of South Carolina

Lee Bateman, Attorney

Kenneth Beauregard

Larry Bean

Richard Becker, Sales Manager

Kathy Bell

Michael Bender, Clinical Professor of Medicine Emeritus, UCSF

Jay Bergman, Professor, Central Connecticut State University

Joe Bettencourt, Doctor, Tufts University School Of Medicine

Julie Biggs

Daniel Bingham

John Blackman, ACO, NACA

Jan H. Blits, Professor Emeritus, University of Delaware

Kathryn Block

Lisa Boadway

John Bock, Educator, MESD

Vivian Booth

Daniel Bonevac, Professor, University of Texas at Austin

George Borkow

Deborah Boryenace

Bob Borzotta, Journalist and PR Executive

Robert Bouvatte

George R. Bowling

Peter Bradley, Attorney at Law, Peter Sean Bradley

Angela Corbin Bransford, Former Beaumont, Texas Independent School District Board Manager

Tammy Brantley

Joana Breslaw

Dawnelle Breum

Lester Brickman, Professor Emeritus, Yeshiva University

Glenda Brinsfield

Mary Brown

Nancy Bruce

Patricia Brunsing

Northrup Buechner, Associate Professor (Retired), St. John's University

Jonathan Burack, History Curriculum Developer, MindSparks History & Social Studies

Timothy Burns, Professor and Graduate Program Director, Political Science, Baylor University

Charles Busbey

Cheryl Button

Mary Byrne, Director of Education, Educated Citizen Project

Michael Cahill

Ralph Calabrese

Garrett Caldwell, Teacher, Newark Academy

Jo Ann Cameron, Professor Emerita, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Theresa Camoriano, Patent Attorney

Mike Campbell

Mary Capella

Susan Capps

Chris Cash

Brian Centeno, Former Deputy Superintendent, Fairfield-Suisun Unified School District

Andrejs Cers, Lecturer, University of Minnesota

John C. ("Chuck") Chalberg, Senior Fellow, Center of the American Experiment

Michael Chaney

Bruce Chapman, Former Director, U.S. Census Bureau, Discovery Institute

Tina Christie

Brad Chubb

Claudio Cioffi-Revilla, University Professor Emeritus, George Mason University

Adam Clark

Roderick Clay, Instructor (Retired), Columbus State Community College

Terry Clough

Geoffrey Coates-Wynn

Cynthia Coburn, Shop Owner

Jacqueline Conlan, Retired Educator, New Jersey Retirees' Education Association

Deborah Cook-Hunter

Amanda Covert

Frank Mark Cranfill

Susan F. Cranfill

Claudia Creason

Susan Crowley

Chris Cullen, Redfield College

Ziva Dahl, Opinion Writer, Haym Salomon Center

Michael Damron, Paraprofessional Educator

B. Daniels, Graduate Student

Michael Danly

Michael Davey, National Board Certified Teacher, DiAnne M. Pellerin Center

Crystal Davis

Holly Davis

LaVada Davis

Stephen Davis

Thomas Davis, Associate Professor of Philosophy, Whitman College

Deborah DeBacker, Stop Common Core in Michigan, Inc.

Spencer Dedor

David H. DeJong

Dorothy Delisle

Barry Demchak

Marshall DeRosa, Professor, Florida Atlantic University

Katherine Dillon

Damian DiPaola

Christian Dippel, Associate Professor of Economics, UCLA Anderson & Ivey School of Business at Western University

Carlie Dixon, Civics Teacher

Leon Dixon

Anna Doan, Junia Doan's The Spark

Henry Doherty

Michael P. Doherty

Joseph D. Dominici, Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist

Karen Domsic

Candace Donnelly, Owner, Educator, Common Sense Civics and Citizenship

Geraldine Donovan

Leslie Doyle, VP, Project Management, Digitas Health

Pamela Dubin

Russell Dusseault

Elizabeth Eastman, Senior Scholar in Residence 2020-2021, Benson Center for the Study of Western Civilization

Max Eden, Research Fellow, American Enterprise Institute

Kenneth Edlund

Sheryl Egan

Christian Eilers

Robert Eitel

Leslie Elkins

William Ely

Barney Enderlein

Erwin Epstein, Professor Emeritus, Loyola University Chicago

Melvin Ethridge, Professor (Retired), Texas Tech University

Barbara Ettner

Julia Evanko, Program Officer, The Love & Fidelity Network

Brian Fanelli

Beth Feeley, Senior Advisor, 1776 Unites, The Woodson Center

Ryan Felix, Probation Officer, City of Carson

Jerry Finnerty

Lynn Finnie, Pharmacist

Donna Lynn Foster

Don Fox

Garion Frankel, Policy Director, Texas Federation of College Republicans

Jeremy Frankel

Brad Franklin, Education Specialist, Santa Clara Unified School District

Jane Fraser, President, The Stuttering Foundation

William French

Rebecca Friedrichs, Founder & President, For Kids and Country

Denise Froehlich

Nels Frye, Writer, Springfieldian LLC

Julie Fuller

John Furutani

Frank J. Gaffney, Executive Chairman, Center for Security Policy

Craig Gallaway, Associate Professor of Theology (Retired), Samford University, Beeson Divinity School

Natalie Gandhi

Gabriel J. Gardner, Associate Librarian, California State University Long Beach

Tracy Gardner

Mary Geiter

Claudine Geoghegan, Chapter Head-Kentucky, No Left Turn In Education

Michelle George

Tim Gerhardt

Jacob Giese

Jody Giles, Lecturer

Lisa Gilligan

Shawn Glanville

David Gockowski

Linda Goldman

Jon Gordon, Law Enforcement Officer (Retired), U.S. Department of Homeland Security; BGS in History from University of Nebraska at Omaha

Julie Gorham, Orthotic Clinician, Hanger Clinic

Eric J. Gourley, General Surgeon, Baylor Scott & White Healthcare; Texas A&M University

Jerry Griffin, Associate Professor, Walden University

Byard Grim

Kent Guida

Sarah Hagen

Rachel Hale

Roger Haley, High School Teacher (Retired)

Alma Hallworth

Denise Hargett

William Harris, Retired Professor of English

Christine Hartman

Rheanna Hastings, Cape Parent Community Coalition

Julie Hathaway

Josh Haverlock, Program Associate, Foundation for Individual Rights in Education

Charles Haywood, Writer, The Worthy House

Robert Heidt, Professor Emeritus, Indiana University

David Hein, Senior Fellow, George C. Marshall Foundation

John Hendrickson, Policy Director, Tax Education Foundation of Iowa

Claudia Henneberry, Social Studies Teacher (Retired), Political Activist, Tennessee for Education

Joel Hensley

Chris Henyan

Daniel Hepler, Lecturer, UC Riverside

Peter Hewett

Steve Hinterberger

Jonathan Hintz

Marcia Hintz

Max Hocutt, Professor of Philosophy (Retired), University of Alabama

Chris Hoecke

Gary Hoffman

Randall Hogan

Thad Holley, Middle School Counselor (Retired)

Aaron Honeycutt

John Hood, Adjunct Faculty, Duke University

Terrence Hormel

Gary Horne, High School Teacher, Booker T. Washington High School

Gary Houchens, Professor, Western Kentucky University

Randall Hough, Board of Education Member, Fayette County, Georgia Board of Education

Taffy Howard, State Representative, South Dakota House of Representatives

Jacob Howland, Senior Fellow, Tikvah Fund

Christopher Hudson

James Huffman, Professor and Dean Emeritus, Lewis & Clark Law School

Sean Hurt, Assistant Professor, Del Mar College

Candace Huskey

Carol Iannone, Editor-at-Large, Academic Questions, National Association of Scholars

Scott Idleman, Professor of Law, Marquette University

Al Jackson, Retired teacher

Susan Jacob

Jeremy Jackson

Melissa Jackson, Georgia Chapter Director, No Left Turn in Education

Robert Jackson, Chief Academic Officer, Great Hearts America

Floyd James

Frank Jaeckle

Darci Jessie

Jason Jewell, Professor, Faulkner University

Charles Johnson

James Johnson, Owner, The Mars Project

Kathy Johnson

Pam Johnson

Philip Johnson, Physician

Will Johnson

Gregory Josefchuk, President, National Coalition For Men Carolinas

Jules Jourde

Pamela Kagan, Teacher of Teachers, Professional Learning Board

Katherine Kainz, Psychologist Emeritus

Angela Kamrath, President and Editorial Director, American Heritage Education Foundation

Jack Kamrath, American Heritage Education Foundation

Bobbi Karibian

Laraine Kasper, Substitute Teacher, Los Angeles Unified School District

Timothy Kearns

Patrick Keating, Past Grand Knight, Knights of Columbus

Patti Keene

Philip Keever

Donna Kelly, Graduate Student, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor

Kathryn Kelly, Executive Director, I∙School

Bob Kergel

Nelson Kieff, Special Forces Major, Civil Trial and Appellate Attorney (Retired)

Carol Kiester

Jill King

Robert Kiss, Historian

Glen J. Kissel, Associate Professor of Engineering, University of Southern Indiana

Jennifer Kittle, Dentist (Retired)

Alexandra C. Klaren, Assistant Professor, Johns Hopkins Carey Busniess School

Pia Klein

Kyle Klitzke, Treasurer/Founder, Free We The People Fox Valley PAC

Mr. Klumb, Teacher, Milwaukee Public Schools

Robert Knisely

Anthony Knopp, Professor Emeritus, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Darcy Kocher, Teacher

Richard Koethe, Director of Training, Integras, Dave Roever Foundation

Steve Kondogianis

David Krieg

Annette Krumweide

William Kuechler, Professor Emeritus, Information Systems, University of Nevada, Reno

Heather LaGuire

Arthur Lane

David Lantz, Author

Abe Laughlin, Church Of Christ

Fran Lavery

Michelle Lavoie

Brad Layton

Chance Layton, Communications Director, National Association of Scholars

Jonathan Leaf, Playwright, Sheen Center for Thought and Culture

Tom Leeson, Former Visiting Professor, University of California, Los Angeles

Todd Leonard, High School Instructor, Micah 6.8 Ministries

Norman Lillegard, Professor Emeritus, University of Tennessee, Martin

Mack Lindsey

Nick Lindquist, Strategist, Beck & Stone

Cheryl Little

Paul Livaudais

William Loe

Jim Logan

Mark Lowder

Dan Lubrich

Robert Luebke, Senior Fellow, Center for Effective Education, John Locke Foundation

James Lung, Attorney, Judicial Official (Retired)

Elizabeth Lynch

Kristina Macejka

Wayne MacKirdy, Teacher, The Biblical Life System Institute

Amy Maffeo

Fred Mahardy

Dr. Sumantra Maitra, Non Resident Fellow, The James G. Martin Center for Academic Renewal

Lisa Maloney, Local School Board Director

Sue Manfredi

Jean Mann

Rick Manning, President, Americans for Limited Government

Harvey Mansfield, Professor Emeritus of Government, Harvard University

Joel Margolis, Assistant Professor (Retired)

Allen Martin, Professor Emeritus, University of Texas at Tyler

Chelsea Martin, Paralegal

Mary Martin

Mauricio Martinez, Office Assistant, Student

David Masters, Adjunct Professor of Theology & Ministry, Saint Thomas University & Monsignor Edward Pace High School

William Mattox, Director, Marshall Center for Education, James Madison Institute

Robert Michael McAvoy, Professor, Politics & Public Policy, Hill College

Robert McCormick

Jean McCurdy, Former School Board Member

Paulette McElroy

Allison McGoldrick

Charlotte McGuire, Vice President, Ohio Board of Education

Ann McLean, Independent Scholar

W. Douglas McMillin, Professor Emeritus, Louisiana State University

Natalie McNeill

Rene McSherry

Francis X. Meaney

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Barbara D. Miller, Associate Professor Emerita, SUNY Buffalo State College

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Rod Miller, Professor, Hendrix College

David Millikan

Michael Milliken, Assistant Professor, University of Utah

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Randolph Mitchell, Student, Southwestern University

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Barbara Ann Mojica, Historian, Hunter College, Queens College, Graduate Center of the City University of NY, and Long Island University, C.W. Post Campus

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Donald Morgan, M.D.

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Jonathan VanGeest, Professor, Kent State University

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Image: Sean Valentine, Public Domain

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