Letter: Reforming Louisiana Social Studies Standards

Peter Wood and David Randall

Editor's Note: The National Association of Scholars (NAS) and the Civics Alliance works to ensure that every state has academic standards that promote first-rate education and protect school children from political indoctrination. We promote reform of content standards in every state, and we have been asked by Louisiana citizens to comment on the draft Louisiana Standards: Social Studies (LSSS). We have read these standards (draft of September 23, 2021). We conclude that LSSS, unfortunately, uses misguided pedagogical principles and has been politicized to forward a radical curriculum aligned with Critical Race Theory and Action Civics. Its substitution of World History for Western Civilization erases America’s history of liberty and operates at too large a scale to allow teachers to teach effectively. We recommend that the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE) revise that draft thoroughly.

We have sent the following letter to the Louisiana BESE.


Louisiana State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education
1201 North Third Street
Baton Rouge, LA 70802

October 14, 2021

Dear Louisiana State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education,

The National Association of Scholars (NAS) and the Civics Alliance works to ensure that every state has academic standards that promote first-rate education and protect school children from political indoctrination. We promote reform of content standards in every state, and we have been asked by Louisiana citizens to comment on the draft Louisiana Standards: Social Studies (LSSS). We have read these standards (draft of September 23, 2021). We conclude that LSSS, unfortunately, uses misguided pedagogical principles and has been politicized to forward a radical curriculum aligned with Critical Race Theory and Action Civics. Its substitution of World History for Western Civilization erases America’s history of liberty and operates at too large a scale to allow teachers to teach effectively. We recommend that the Board of Elementary and Secondary Education (BESE) revise that draft thoroughly.

We know that your current remit is to consider line-by-line critiques of the existing draft. We therefore provide these below in our Suggested Emendations section of this letter, and we will submit these as well via your electronic public comment portal.1 We do not believe, however, that the LSSS can be modified in detail and provide an adequate social studies education for Louisiana K-12 students. We explain these larger flaws in our Strategic Analysis section of this letter. We recommend to you, to Louisiana policymakers, and (most importantly) to Louisiana citizens a thoroughgoing revision of LSSS. We urge you to enact as many of these reforms as currently lies within your statutory power, and we urge you to request the Louisiana state legislature and governor to pass into law any legislation necessary to facilitate these proposed reforms.

We recommend thirteen (13) strategic reforms to LSSS:

  1. Independence: Detach LSSS from frameworks that promote radical curriculum, such as C3 Framework for Social Studies State Standards and The Roadmap to Educating for American Democracy.
  2. Depoliticization: Enact legislation based on NAS’s model Partisanship Out of Civics Act and Schools Nondiscrimination Act.
  3. Factual Knowledge Foundation: Incorporate the organizational structure and content of Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework (2003).
  4. Assessable Writing Expectations: Add Writing Expectations to every level of LSSS Social Studies Analysis Skills and Practices.
  5. Curriculum Principles: Adopt liberty, faith, economic freedom, and scientific and technological creativity as Primary Themes, integrated with our recommended Coverage Frameworks for Western Civilization, United States History, and Civics.
  6. Liberty’s History: Replace World History instruction with Western Civilization instruction in grades 3-5 and 9-12, keyed to the history of liberty.
  7. Elementary Liberty: Western Civilization instruction in Grades 3-5 should continue through 1789 and include the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, and English and French history.
  8. Geography: Eliminate the World Geography course, move all analyses of politics, economics, society, and culture from Geography to History, and remove activist pedagogy.
  9. World History: Gather all LSSS World History instruction and teach it as one year-long course in Grade 7 or Grade 8. Use our recommended Coverage Framework.
  10. State History: Gather all LSSS State History instruction and teach it as one semester course in Grade 7 or Grade 8.
  11. African American Heritage: Consult with 1776 Unites about how to integrate into LSSS an inspirational account of African American history that tells it as a fulfillment of the promise of American liberty and national unity.
  12. French Heritage: Add French Heritage as a Curricular Theme, with coverage integrated in Western Civilization, United States History, State History, and World History.
  13. Legislation: Enact legislation based on NAS’s model K-12 Civics Code, especially the Social Studies Curriculum Act, Western Civilization Act, Historical Documents Act, Partisanship Out of Civics Act, and Schools Nondiscrimination Act.

We provide longer explanations of these thirteen recommendations in our Strategic Analysis section of this letter.

We would be glad to provide BESE fuller versions of these strategic recommendations. In the interim, we urge you to adopt the line-by-line critiques we provide in our Suggested Emendations. We believe these will go a long way toward improving Louisiana’s public K-12 education—although only thoroughgoing, strategic reform will truly provide a proper education for Louisiana students.

Respectfully yours,
Peter Wood
President, National Association of Scholars

David Randall
Project Director, Civics Alliance


  1. Radical Dependence. Frameworks such as the National Council for the Social Studies’
    College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards and
    Educating for American Democracy’s The Roadmap to Educating for American
    Democracy replace social studies pedagogy with identity politics and radical activism
    pedagogies such as Critical Race Theory and Action Civics.2

Recommendation: Detach LSSS from such frameworks as the National Council for the
Social Studies’ College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State
Standards and Educating for American Democracy’s The Roadmap to Educating for
American Democracy.
 

  1. Politicization. LSSS registers constant politicization, by its assumption of identity politics and radical critique. We attach below suggestions to emend LSSS in detail, which would remove the more egregious language. (See Suggested Emendations.) LSSS needs to adopt larger strategic changes to remove the institutional frameworks that substitute radical activism for social studies education.

Recommendation: Call upon the Louisiana State Legislature to ensure the Louisiana public K-12 schools remain free of politicization by enacting legislation based on NAS’s model Partisanship Out of Civics Act, Schools Nondiscrimination Act, and Historical Documents Act.3

  1. Inquiry and Skills Framework. LSSS makes inquiry and skills the foundation of its standards rather than clearly organized expectations to learn a coherent body of factual knowledge. LSSS does not convey clearly a body of material that students should learn. Louisiana teachers predictably will skip teaching factual material—the substance of history—if LSSS requires them to focus on inquiry and skills.

Recommendation: Remodel LSSS to incorporate the organizational structure and content of Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework (2003).4 LSSS should require teachers to focus on teaching a coherent body of factual knowledge and eliminate or minimize skills standards.

  1. Soft Expectations. LSSS Social Studies Analysis Skills and Practices (pp. 2-5) includes no assessable expectations that students write intellectually sophisticated history papers with full command of the English language.

Recommendation: Add Writing Expectations to every level of LSSS Social Studies Analysis Skills and Practices.

K-2.11 Students are expected by the end of 2nd grade to write sentences and paragraphs on historical subject matter with full command of spelling, punctuation, and grammar.

3-5.11 Students are expected by the end of 5th grade to write an introductory 3 page history paper with full command of spelling, punctuation, and grammar.

6-8.11 Students are expected by the end of 8th grade to write an intellectually solid 5-page history paper with full command of spelling, punctuation, and grammar.

9-12.11 Students are expected by the end of 12th grade to write an intellectually sophisticated 10-page history paper with full command of spelling, punctuation, and grammar, and thereby demonstrate that they are prepared for an undergraduate history course.

  1. Curriculum Principles. LSSS largely erases the exceptional history of Western and American accomplishments, founded in liberty, faith, economic freedom, and scientific and technological creativity. LSSS does not make their history a primary theme and so their history is minimized or disappears. Where they do appear, students cannot learn their fundamental importance in Western and American history.

Recommendation: Adopt the following Primary Themes and revise LSSS to integrate them in every course of instruction.

Liberty: The slow development and application of the ideals and institutions of liberty, particularly those embodied in constitutional self-government.

Faiths and Nations: The distinctive histories and characters of the world’s enduring faiths and nations and their importance as wellsprings of human behavior.

Science and Technology: The unique development of Western science and technology and the consequent transformation of the world from poverty to affluence.

Economics: The development of conscious awareness of how markets promote human flourishing and the development of institutions and policies to deepen their benefits and broaden the number of beneficiaries.

State and Society: The development of the coercive powers of the state, for good and for ill, as a complement to the autonomous, self-regulatory dynamics of human societies.

Achievement: The exceptional but fragile achievement embodied in the creation and preservation of the American republic, which has to a remarkable extent institutionalized the practice of liberty and extended its habits within the American nation.


Recommendation: Integrate the Primary Themes into LSSS by adopting the following Coverage Frameworks.

Western Civilization Coverage Framework. The continuous development of Western civilization from Sumer and Egypt, self-conscious from ancient Greece and Israel, through Rome, medieval Christendom, and the European creation of the modern world since the Renaissance. Europe’s internal and external wars, which shaped the character of European civilization, preserved that civilization from conquest by its rivals, and culminated, during a brief apogee, in Europe’s extraordinary conquest of much of the world. Particular attention to the development of democratic and republican ideals and institutions via the matrices of classical and Christian thought, and to the history of England, which links the broader history of European liberty with the history of the United States of America. Emphasis on the uniquely European histories of science, technology, and free-market economics.

United States History Coverage Framework. The development of the American nation from its origins in England and England’s colonies on the Atlantic seaboard. The exceptional development of American liberty from European ideals and practices, its institutionalization in the revolutionary republic’s Constitution, and its extension and application in America’s subsequent history. Particular attention to the interplay of republican ideals and institutions and the creation of an American nation, imbued with the habits and culture of liberty, and willing to welcome newcomers into its capacious hearth. Emphasis on the role of faith in sustaining and extending liberty, and on the economic and technological sinews of power that gave America the capacity to champion freedom throughout the world during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

Civics Coverage Framework. The Greek, Hebrew, and Roman sources of the American political system, and the Christian synthesis of Greek, Hebrew, and Roman thought, with its emphasis on the equal dignity of all individual humans in the eyes of God. The medieval English inheritance and documents of common law, jury, local self-government (constables, sheriffs, boroughs, counties), liberty, and representative government. The early modern English inheritance and documents of Christian liberty, republicanism, militia, accountable government, mixed government, parliamentary sovereignty, freedom of the press, and the English Bill of Rights and Toleration Act. The colonial American inheritance and documents of Christian liberty, self-government, and local government. The Enlightenment theories of Locke, Montesquieu, and their contemporaries that universalized the traditions of English liberty. The radicalization of the American colonists after 1763, in response to ham-fisted English policy. The sources, ideas, and effect of the Declaration of Independence. The nature of the Articles of Confederation and the reasons why Americans created a weak central government. Revolutionary-era state constitutions, the impulse to create a new Constitution, the nature of the Constitution, federalist and anti-federalist arguments, and the Bill of Rights.

  1. Liberty’s History. LSSS largely erases the history of liberty, which is the foundation of America. LSSS replaces Western Civilization with World History and so erases the coherent narrative that explains the source of America’s ideals and institutions of liberty. LSSS does not make the history of liberty a primary theme and so the history of liberty frequently disappears from the Standards. LSSS does teach America’s founding documents, but shorn of their background or their influence on American history.

Recommendation: Replace World History instruction with Western Civilization instruction in Grades 3-5 and 9-12, which includes the following Primary Themes:

Primary Theme: Identify the ideals, institutions, and individual examples of human liberty, individualism, religious freedom, and republican self-government.

Primary Theme: Assess the extent to which civilizations fulfilled ideals of human liberty, individualism, religious freedom, and republican self-government.

Primary Theme: Examine how the ideals of human liberty, individualism, religious freedom, and republican self-government contributed to the formation of modern American ideals.

Recommendation: We urge the Louisiana State Legislature to ensure the Louisiana public K-12 schools adopt this measure by enacting legislation based on NAS’s model Social Studies Curriculum Act and model Western Civilization Act.5

  1. Elementary Liberty. World History instruction in Grades 3-5 ends at 1600. If Grades 3-5 substitute Western Civilization for World History, this still will leave students unprepared for United States history, since they will possess no knowledge of the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, or English and French history between 1600 and 1789.

Recommendation: Western Civilization instruction in Grades 3-5 should continue through 1789 and include the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment, and English and French history.

  1. Geography. Geography instruction as a discipline has been largely captured by radical activists, who use it to impose environmental activism and other social justice activism on students in the guise of geography instruction. LSSS geography instruction swerves toward radical activism whenever it departs from narrowly defined geography instruction, and especially whenever it discusses environment or climate.

Recommendation: Eliminate the World Geography course, move all analyses of politics, economics, society, and culture from Geography to History, and remove activist pedagogy.

  1. World History. LSSS’ World History attempts to cover too much material. Students don’t learn more material than in Western Civilization; they learn no history, because the coverage is too large and unfocused. The World History discipline also imposes peculiar polemical distortions on World History instruction, such as emphasizing trade between civilizations (unimportant) and ignoring the tightly-bound life of farmers (vital).

Recommendation: Gather all LSSS World History instruction and teach it as one year-long course in Grade 7 or Grade 8. Use this Coverage Framework.

World History Coverage Framework. The migrations, conquests, and technological advances of prehistory and history that peopled the world. The development and character of small-scale tribes, nomadic societies, and villages that preceded civilization, whose nature must be understood to comprehend the nature and the magnitude of the civilizing process. The development and distinctive character of the larger civilizations, with evaluative comparison of their strengths and weaknesses. Examination of how Europe created a world system that united largely separate regions and gave birth to new nations in the Americas and Australasia. Analysis of the interplay of common human dynamics such as agriculture, commerce, and state-building and the particular events, faiths, and cultures of each region—with particular attention to the power and appeal of Europe’s unique ideals and institutions of liberty, and their varying reception by different civilizations. Particular emphasis on Sinic civilization, Europe’s most formidable rival, which may soon re-center around itself the world system created by Europe.

  1. State History. LSSS distributes Louisiana state history in its World History and United States History instruction. This choice encourages uninformed comparisons and makes it impossible to teach a coherent account of Louisiana’s history.

Recommendation: Gather all LSSS State History instruction and teach it as one semester course in Grade 7 or Grade 8.

  1. African American Heritage. American history should include African American history as an essential component of the triumph of the promise of American liberty, its extension to all Americans, and the creation of truly national unity. LSSS should teach all African American history as a glorious component of America’s bedrock history of liberty. LSSS should also teach African American history as an equally glorious part of a nation whose members have striven with wonderful success to regard all their fellow Americans as individuals fundamentally united by their shared citizenship, shared American nationality, and shared love of their country.

Recommendation: 1776 Unites, a nonpartisan and intellectually diverse alliance of hundreds of thousands of Americans, provides curriculum that celebrates African American excellence, rejects victimhood culture, and showcases the millions of African Americans who have prospered by embracing the founding ideals of America.6 LSSS should consult with 1776 Unites about how to integrate into LSSS an inspirational account of African American history that tells it as a fulfillment of the promise of American liberty and national unity.

  1. French Heritage. LSSS scarcely mention the history of France or of French Louisianans. A document steeped in “diversity” ideology ignores Louisiana’s French heritage, which truly marks it as distinctive within the United States.

Recommendation: Add French Heritage as a Curricular Theme, with coverage integrated in Western Civilization, United States History, State History, and World History.

  1. Legislation. LSSS’s current draft reflects the preferences of Louisiana Department of Education personnel. Louisiana state policymakers can best ensure their compliance with curriculum reform by enacting comprehensive legislation to reform Louisiana’s public K-12 school system.

Recommendation: We urge the Louisiana state legislature to enact legislation based on NAS’s model K-12 Civics Code, especially the Social Studies Curriculum Act, Western Civilization Act, Partisanship Out of Civics Act, and Schools Nondiscrimination Act.7

General Notes

  1. We only included items where we suggest emendation. These notes include strikethrough text to indicate text that should be deleted and underlined text to indicate suggested additions. We also have included some explanatory Notes.
  2. Some suggested emendations for the elementary level include moderately complex concepts. We included additional complexity both for precision and so that these standards could be modified easily for use in a higher grade.
  3. We included fewer detailed emendations in World History and World Geography, since we believe these courses should be replaced entirely by Western Civilization instruction.
  4. We have included additional items as detailed emendation to World History instruction that include the core of Western Civilization instruction. We recommend at a minimum that these items be included in World History instruction.
  5. We commented on the draft available on September 23, 2021.

Social Studies Analysis Skills (pp. 2-5)

3-5.3. “Evaluate the credibility of a variety of sources by examining the following: A. How the author’s identity influenced the perspective provided beliefs affected his interpretation.”

6-8.3. “Evaluate the credibility of a variety of sources by examining the following: A. How the author’s identity influenced the perspective provided beliefs affected his interpretation.”

9-12.3. “Evaluate the credibility of a variety of sources by examining the following: A. How the author’s identity influenced the perspective provided beliefs affected his interpretation.”

K-2.4. “Describe how the presence or absence of evidence affects may affect interpretations.

3-5.4. “Describe how the inclusion, exclusion, or omission of sources affects may affect historical interpretations.”

6-8.4. “Explain how the inclusion, exclusion, and omission of sources may affect historical interpretations.”

9-12.4. “Evaluate how the inclusion, exclusion, and omission of sources may affect historical interpretations and narratives.”

6-8.10. “Critique and analyze the validity, relevance, and potential bias underlying beliefs of others’ claims and the evidence used to support them.”

Writing Expectations [New Category].

Add:

K-2.11 Students are expected by the end of 2nd grade to write sentences and paragraphs on historical subject matter with full command of spelling, punctuation, and grammar.

3-5.11 Students are expected by the end of 5th grade to write an introductory 3-page history paper with full command of spelling, punctuation, and grammar.

6-8.11 Students are expected by the end of 8th grade to write an intellectually solid 5-page history paper with full command of spelling, punctuation, and grammar.

9-12.11 Students are expected by the end of 12th grade to write an intellectually sophisticated 10-page history paper with full command of spelling, punctuation, and grammar, and thereby demonstrate that they are prepared for an undergraduate history course.

Kindergarten (pp. 6-8)

K.H.1. “Describe how communities nations can change over time.”

K.H.3. “Compare life in communities of America in the past to life today.

K.H.4. “Compare traditions in various communities, including those from diverse backgrounds.Learn America’s traditions.

K.H.5. “Explain the importance of equality and diversity in building strong communities.Explain the importance of liberty and equality under the law in the development of America.

K.H.6. “Describe ways in which students and families are alike and different across diverse cultures and time periods. Describe how Americans have changed and stayed the same in the course of their history.

K.H.8. “Identify the causes and effects of significant events in a community Louisiana history.”

K.H.9. “Explain why certain events, ideas, and individuals are celebrated. Americans celebrate certain events, ideas, and individuals, such as the American Revolution, liberty, and George Washington.”

K.H.10. “Identify the influence of various ethnic groups on communities in Louisiana. Learn how French, English, African Americans, Choctaws, and other ethnic groups jointly created Louisiana and its culture.

K.C.1. “Explain the purpose of government. Identify mankind’s natural liberties and explain how government can sustain them.

K.C.2. “Describe organizations within the community that help solve issues. Describe how self-reliant individuals work to preserve their freedoms and increase their prosperity.

K.C.3. “Identify and give examples of how rules help people work together. why people usually should be free to determine their own course of action.

K.C.4. “Describe the importance of rules and the consequences of not following them.conscience to judge whether a rule is immoral or unjust.

K.C.5. “Explain how people work together in a community to make decisions. Americans combine individual self-reliance, civil disagreement, and limited delegation of authority to achieve carefully defined public ends.

K.C.6. “Identify roles and responsibilities of self and others in school, home, and in a community. private citizens and public officials in the parish and town.

K.C.7. “Identify elected leaders in a local community of the parish and town and describe their roles.”

K.E.3. “Identify places in the community parish that provide goods and services.”

K.E.4. “Define trade and explain why trade is necessary for a community and how it varies across communities., explain why individuals trade, and provide examples of different types of trade.

K.E.5. “Differentiate between wants and needs. primary expenses, such as food, clothing, and shelter, and discretionary expenses.

K.E.6. “Identify jobs and industries within a school and community parish.”

K.E.8. “Identify goods and services produced in local communities different parishes in Louisiana.”

K.E. New Items.

Add: “Define private property, the individual right to dispose of one’s private property, and the government’s obligation to preserve private property rights.”

Add: “Define the individual right to choose how to work and the government’s obligation to preserve the right to work.”

Add: “Define free exchange of goods and services.”

K.G.3. “Identify ways humans interact with their environment in a local community.Louisianans have changed the land to benefit the public good, such as farming, housing construction, and levees.

K.G.4. “Identify rural, suburban and urban communities parishes.”

K.G.5. “Explain how weather impacts daily life and choices. Explain how Louisianans have adapted successfully to their climate.

K.G.6. “Identify examples of different cultures in a local community. Louisiana’s distinctive form of American culture.

Note: Move from Geography to History.

K.G.7. “Explain why people choose to move from place to place.”

K.G.8. “Explain how the physical environment has positive and negative effects on communities in Louisiana. Identify some of Louisianans’ differing and often conflicting judgments about what they like and dislike in their physical environment.

Grade 1 (pp. 9-11)

1.H.2. “Compare life in communities of America in the past to life today.”

1.H.4. “Compare the lives of people Lousianans today in various communities, including those from diverse backgrounds. urban, suburban, and rural parishes.

1.H.5. “Compare perspectives beliefs of people in the past to those of people in the present.”

1.H.6. “Describe a historical event from a variety of cultural perspectives. how different observers described a single historical event.

1.H.7. “Explain the contributions of diverse individuals and groups to the development of Louisiana. Including but not limited to American Indians, Black Americans, Latinos, and Asian Americans. how varied nations united themselves to forge and develop Louisiana.

1.H.9. “Describe the influence of American Indians in Louisiana’s past and present culture. Identify the distinctive contribution of French settlers to the formation of Louisiana, which distinguishes Louisiana within America.

1.H.12. “Explain why refugees have relocated into Louisiana in the past and present.”

Note: This item forwards the current progressive campaign to eliminate America’s ability to regulate immigration. There is in any case no reason this should be taught in the first grade. Delete and do not replace.

1.C.1. “Describe the purpose of liberties guaranteed by Louisiana’s state government.”

1.C.5. “Describe civic virtues. Including but not limited to self-reliance, respect for the rule of law, voting, running for office, serving on committees, and volunteering.”

Note: “volunteering” should not be used to prepare students for the progressive “pedagogies” of service-learning, civic engagement, action civics, protest civics, or community organizing.

1.C.6. “Describe democratic American principles. Including but not limited to equality, freedom, liberty, and respect for individual rights. inborn liberty and freedom, individual equality under the law, due process and the presumption of innocence, respect for individual rights, and the presumption that Americans treat one another with sincerity and good will.

1.C. New Item.

Add: “Learn the Louisiana Pledge of Allegiance, the State Motto, and the words and music of the State Anthem.”

1.E.3. “Describe how different jobs, in both public and private institutions, help people in the community. public and private jobs help Louisianans.

1.E.4. “Describe how Louisiana’s economy benefits society at large America.”

1.E.5. “Explain why and how goods and services are produced and traded. Including but not limited to satisfying wants and needs primary expenses and discretionary expenses, and the role of bartering and money in facilitating trade.”

1.E. New Items.

Add: “Explain why people move to earn a better living.”

Add: “Describe how free economic choice benefits the individual and the country.”

1.G.4. “Describe ways people change their environment to meet their needs improve their lives.”

1.G.5. “Identify and describe environmental and cultural characteristics that influence places and regions in Louisiana. Including but not limited to weather, climate, and ecology. Describe how Louisianans throughout their history settled and improved the land by successfully adapting their culture to suit their environment and successfully modifying their environment to suit their culture.

1.G.6. “Identify possible solutions to the problems related to the environment in Louisiana. Including but not limited to floods, levees, Louisiana’s disappearing coastline, oil spills, wetlands loss, and sea-level rise. Discuss how Louisianans have successfully met the challenges posed by natural disasters and other environmental changes.

1.G.7. “Describe how culture and experience influence the cultural landscape of places and regions in Louisiana.”

Note: I.H.10 provides coverage. Delete and do not replace.

1.G.8. “Explain how and why people and goods move from place to place.”

Note: A suggested replacement in 1.E. New Items provides coverage: “Explain why people move to earn a better living.” Delete and do not replace.

1.G.9. “Identify the interactions of Louisiana with organizations around the world. Including but not limited to immersion programs, international festivals, and international organizations. how Louisianans participate in national American organizations and celebrations. Including but not limited to the Boy Scouts, Future Farmers of America, and Constitution Day.

1.G.10. “Compare both the physical and cultural characteristics of communities throughout Louisiana.”

Note: I.G.5, as emended, provides coverage. Delete and do not replace.

1.G.11. “Explain how the physical landscape of Louisiana impacted the settlement of Indigenous people and early settlers.”

Note: I.G.5, as emended, provides coverage. Delete and do not replace.

Grade 2 (pp. 12-14)

2.H.2. “Compare life in communities of America in the past to life today.”

2.H.3. “Describe how events, people, and innovations of the past affect the community parish, state, and nation in the present.”

2.H.4. “Compare perspectives beliefs of people in the past to those of people in the present.”

2.H.5. “Explain historical events from a variety of perspectives. how different observers can interpret the same historical events in different ways.

2.H.6. “Explain the contributions of diverse individuals and groups to the development of Louisiana. Including but not limited to American Indians, Black Americans, Latinos, and Asian Americans. Explain how individuals of varied nations united themselves to forge and develop America.

2.H.8. Describe the causes and effects of technological and scientific innovation, emphasizing how technology and science have liberated and enriched mankind.”

2.H.10. “Explain how the diverse cultural makeup of the United States influences Louisiana. Louisiana embodies America’s tolerant and pluralist culture.

2.C.2. “Explain how an effective government creates order, establishes justice, and meets the needs of citizens. Explain, with reference to the Declaration of Independence and the Preamble to the Constitution, how the federal government protects liberty, establishes justice by means such as the protection of due process, provides for the common defense, and thereby establishes the conditions necessary for individual citizens to pursue happiness as they see fit.

2.C.4. “Explain the purpose of rules and laws in the United States. Explain the ideals of liberty in the Declaration of Independence and how the Constitution protects those ideals by establishing an enduring republic based upon the consent of the governed.

2.C.5. “Compare state and national leaders elected officials and explain their roles and responsibilities.”

2.C.7. “Describe how civic virtues guide governments, societies, communities, and individuals. Identify the religious and secular sources in Western Civilization for America’s conception of civic virtue and describe how they have affected American history, including by discussion of the Mayflower Compact.

2.C.8. “Describe how democratic principles guide governments, societies, communities, and individuals. American principles inspire and guide individual Americans.

2.C. New Items.

Add: “Learn the National Pledge of Allegiance, the National Motto, and the words and music of The Star-Spangled Banner, America, and God Bless America.”

2.E.1. “Identify how people use natural (renewable and non-renewable), human, and capital resources to provide goods and services.”

2.E.6. “Explain how scarcity of resources and opportunity costs requires people to make choices to satisfy wants and needs. Explain how economic growth reduces but cannot eliminate scarcity of resources. Explain how people choose which desires to satisfy by considering scarcity of resources and opportunity costs.

2.E.7. “Differentiate between imports and exports of goods and services in the United States and Louisiana.”

2.E.11. “Describe how Louisiana’s economy benefits the United States, especially by its human capital and its petroleum, chemical, and agricultural sectors.”

2.G.5. “Describe why and how people in the United States have modified their environment in the past and present. Describe how Americans throughout their history have successfully modified their environment to settle and improve the land.

2.G.7. “Describe the impact effect human activity has had on the environment of North America and the importance of conservation and preservation., the economic and national benefits of that activity, and how conservation and preservation may also contribute to the general welfare.

2.G.9. “Describe the cultural and economic regions regionally varied culture and economy of the United States.”

Note: Move from Geography to History.

2.G.10. “Describe the ways various cultural groups connect and interact within the United States.”

Note: 2.G.9, as emended, provides coverage. Delete and do not replace.  

Grade 3 (pp. 15-17)

3.H.2. “Describe early human migration out of Africa, first to Europe and Asia, then to the Americans Americas and Australia.”

3.H.3. “Describe the characteristics of civilization and compare the origins and development of early cradles of civilization in Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe. Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, China, Mesoamerica, and Peru.

3.H.4. “Interpret historical events from a variety of historical and cultural perspectives. Explain how different observers interpreted select historical events in different ways.”

3.H.5. “Analyze historical events from the perspectives of marginalized or underrepresented groups. Including but not limited to enslaved or conquered peoples, women, nomadic and pastoral peoples.”

Note: 3.H.4, as emended, provides coverage. Delete and do not replace.

3.H.6. “Explain historically accepted the causes and effects of significant historical events. Including but not limited to the Neolithic Revolution, the development of city-states, and the development of different belief systems, rise and decline of early civilizations in Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe. the rise and decline of early civilizations in Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, China, Mesoamerica, and Peru, and the development of different religious and ethical systems, including Judaism, Hinduism, and Confucianism.

Note: “Historically accepted” appears to be a code word to keep Biblical history out of the classroom. A history class should not be predicated on the Bible, but neither should history standards go out of their way to reject its historical utility.

3.H.7. “Explain the settlement and development of complex societies in Analyze the history of what would become Louisiana. Including but not limited to settlement in Louisiana between the Paleoindian and the Late Archaic period.

3.C.2. “Explain connections between governments and religion in early civilizations. Including but not limited to pharaohs and Mesopotamian kings deriving authority from divine sources. Emphasize that religious ideals themselves affected the nature of government, society, and culture, and were not just a tool to justify secular rule.

3.C.5. “Compare and contrast the roles and rights and privileges of individuals in different early civilizations to those in the United States and Louisiana today. Including but not limited to military service, decision making, and leadership. Examine how the ideals of human liberty and individualism in Egypt, Sumer, and Israel contributed to the formation of modern American ideals of human liberty and individualism.

3.C. New Items.

Add: “Identify the ideals of human liberty and individualism in early civilizations, with especial attention to Sumer, Egypt, and Israel.”  

3.E.1. “Explain how the interaction between producers and consumers satisfied economic wants and needs desires within and across early civilizations. Including but not limited to how various resources were utilized as early mediums of exchange; animals furs, cowry shells, gold, porcelain and bartering.”

3.E.7. “Explain how trade leads to increasing economic interdependence among nations. Including but not limited to trade between Egypt and Kush.

Note: Ancient civilizations had extraordinarily limited trade by modern standards, and virtually no economic interdependence. Delete and do not replace.

3.E.8. “Explain how specialization influenced the growth of early civilizations. Explain the dynamic of village specialization in agriculture and nomadic specialization in pastoral farming.

3.E. New Items.

Add: “Explain the extraordinary importance of village agriculture in early civilizations, the limited importance of trade, and the extremely limited importance of trade between early civilizations.”

Add: “Explain how early Middle Eastern civilizations’ economic activities and institutions laid the groundwork for the Greek marketplace (agora).”

Add: “Describe the extent and character of agriculture in pre-Columbian Louisiana.”

3.G.4. “Explain how the cultural and physical characteristics of places and regions influence how people modify and adapt to their environments. Including but not limited to irrigation, levees, terraces, agriculture, changes in land use, clothing, sewage systems, and shelter.”

3.G.5. “Analyze and explain the cultural, physical, and environmental characteristics of places and regions and how they change over time.”

3.G.6. “Analyze and explain how the cultural aspects of a region an ancient civilization’s culture spread beyond its borders. To include but not limited to belief systems, food, language, practices, traditions, and values.”

Note: Move from Geography to History.

3.G.7. “Explain how various changes improvements in transportation, communication, and technology influence quicken the movement of people, goods, and ideas. Including but not limited to the wheel, roads, aqueducts, and canals.

Grade 4 (pp. 18-21)

4.H.2. “Describe the development and spread of world religions and ethical systems in early civilizations and Classical Empires. Including but not limited to Christianity, Judaism, Zoroastrianism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.

4.H.4. “Interpret historical events from a variety of historical and cultural perspectives. To include but not limited to Romans or Han Chinese vs “barbarians”, conquerors vs the conquered. Explain how different observers interpreted select historical events in different ways. To include but not limited to Roman or Chinese conflicts with barbarian neighbors and different accounts of the beliefs of Socrates.

4.H.5. “Analyze historical events from the perspectives of marginalized or underrepresented groups.”

Note: 4.H.4, as emended, provides coverage. Delete and do not replace.

4.H.6. “Explain historically accepted causes and effects of significant historical events between 700 BC- 700 AD. Including but not limited to the rise and decline of civilizations and empires in Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe.”

Note: “Historically accepted” appears to be a code word to keep Biblical history out of the classroom. A history class should not be predicated on the Bible, but neither should history standards go out of their way to reject its historical utility.

4.H.7. “Explain the settlement and development of complex societies in Analyze the history of what would become Louisiana. To include but not limited to settlement in Louisiana between the Woodland and the Late Mississippian Period.”

4.H. New Items.

Add: “Describe the history of Israel, Greece, and Rome, the formation of Western Civilization from these three elements, the birth of Christendom and medieval Europe, and the formation of the French and English nations. To include but not limited to mathematics, philosophy, theology, science, political theory, literature, the fine arts, and the institutions of republican self-government.”

4.C.3. “Explain connections between governments and religion in complex societies and empires between 700 BC - 700 AD. To include but not limited to Rome’s adoption of Christianity as a state religion, the tightly linked genesis of Islam and expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate, and the Edicts of Ashoka. Emphasize that religious ideals themselves affected the nature of government, society, and culture, and were not just a tool to justify secular rule.

4.C.4. “Analyze the purpose and effects of rules and laws in second-wave civilizations from 700 BC - 700 AD. To include but not limited to the Athenian Constitution, the Qin Law Code, Analects of Confucius, and the Twelve Tables, and the Code of Justinian, which is the ancestor Louisiana’s French legal inheritance.”

4.C.7. “Analyze the rights, roles, responsibilities, and limitations extent of the concept of citizenship in Classical Greece and Rome.”

4.C.8. “Compare and contrast the roles and rights of individuals in second-wave civilizations to those in Louisiana today. Including but not limited to military service, voting, civic engagement, decision making, leadership, individual freedoms, and the requirements for citizenship. Examine how the ideals, institutions, and individual examples of human liberty, individualism, and republican self-government in Israel, Greece, Rome, and early Christianity contributed to the formation of modern American ideals.

4.C. New Items.

Add: “Identify the ideals of human liberty and individualism in second-wave civilizations from 700 BC - 700 AD, with especial attention to Israel, Greece, Rome, early Christian thought, and the general philosophical and religious emphasis in Western thought on the dignity of the individual.”

4.E.1. “Explain how the interaction between producers and consumers satisfied economic wants and needs within and across desires in second-wave civilizations and empires between 700 BC - 700 AD. Including but not limited to Roman demand for silk and Chinese production.”

4.E.4. “Explain how market conditions and economic activity affected the growth of second-wave civilizations between 700 BC - 700 AD. Include mention of the connection between Greek economic enterprise, the expansion of the Greek city states, and the flourishing of Greek civilization.

4.E.5. “Analyze how governmental decisions impact economic well-being. Including but not limited to the costs of maintaining legions to defend borders in the late Roman Empire, and the connection between Diocletian’s reduction of economic freedom and the economic and political collapse of the Roman empire.”

4.E.8. Explain how trade leads to increasing economic interdependence. Including but not limited to Interdependent trade in the ancient Mediterranean, and the decline of trade following the collapse of the Roman Empire.

4.E. New Items.

Add: “Explain the extraordinary importance of village agriculture in second-wave civilizations, the limited importance of trade, and the extremely limited importance of trade between second-wave civilizations.”

Add: “Contrast the ideal of economic freedom and the ancient world’s practices of economic coercion, including slavery.”

4.G.4. “Analyze how civilizations and empires between 700 BC - 700 AD shaped their physical environments and maximized their use of scarce resources shaped the development of civilizations and empires between 700 BC - 700 AD. Including but not limited to irrigation, levees, terraces, fertile soil, agriculture, changes in land use, clothing, and sewage systems.

4.G.5. “Explain how civilizations and empires impacted between 700 BC and 700 CE successfully modified their environment between 700 BC and 700 CE. to settle and improve the land. Including but not limited to clearing wilderness, digging mines, river improvement, harbor construction, and road-building in Rome and Han China.

4.G.6. “Explain how population changes in civilizations and empires affected land use between 700 BC - 700 AD. Including but not limited to rural vs urban, major waterways, pandemics, and slavery. population movements between the countryside and the city, the effects of disease, and the late Roman shift from slavery to serfdom as the population shrank.

4.G.7. “Analyze the impact the extent and the effect of interactions between various civilizations and empires between 700 BC - 700 AD.”

4.G.8. “Explain how various changes improvements in transportation, communication, and technology influence quicken the movement of people, goods, and ideas. Including but not limited to the wheel, roads, aqueducts, and canals.”  

Grade 5 (pp. 22-25)

5.H.2. “Describe changes resulting from increased interactions and connections between Afro-Eurasia and the Americas between 1450-1600 AD. Including but not limited to the Great Dying, the development of the transatlantic slave trade; Spanish, Portuguese, and French colonization efforts in South and North America. Describe the consequences of the European Age of Discovery, which between 1450-1600 AD established the foundations of a new world order centered on European politics, religion, commerce, and culture. Including but not limited to the European technological, economic, and political developments that made possible the Age of Discovery; the development of global trade in spices, sugar, and slaves; the deadly spread of Old World diseases in the Americas, and the Spanish and Portuguese conquest and settlement of Latin America.

5.H.3. “Describe the characteristics, origins, and development of civilizations and empires in Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe from 600 BC AD - 1600 AD.”

5.H.4. “Analyze historical events from the perspectives of marginalized or underrepresented groups. Including but not limited to Taino and Aztec perspectives on Spanish colonization; indigenous perspectives on the encomienda system; and the perspectives of enslaved Africans and indigenous people. Explain how different observers interpreted select historical events in different ways. To include but not limited to the career of Joan of Arc and the Spanish Conquest of Mexico.

5.H.5. Analyze the causes and effects of historically significant events between 600 AD and 1600 AD. To include but not limited to the rise and decline and interactions between of civilizations and empires in Africa, the Americas, Asia and Europe, and the growing importance of interactions between these different civilizations.”

5.H. New Items.

Add: “Describe the history of medieval and Renaissance Europe from 600 AD - 1600 AD. Including feudalism, the manorial economy, the Crusades, the medieval Catholic intellectual and cultural world, the Black Death, the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the rise and role of the French and English nations.”

Add: “Describe the ideals and institutions of medieval and Reformation Christianity that formed the matrix of modern Christianity in the United States and in Latin America.”

5.C.1. “Compare political institutions and their influence on people in and outside of empires between 600 - 1600 AD. To include but not limited to monarchies, bureaucracies, tax collection, court systems, education systems, and systems of tribute, with emphasis upon the development of Parlements and Parliaments in France and England, of common law and juries in England, and of the development of the French and English monarchies.”

5.C.3. “Analyze the methods used by governments to create order, establish justice, and meet people’s needs promote the general welfare between 600 - 1600 AD. Including but not limited to methods used in China, Feudal Europe, Byzantium, the Islamic Caliphates, the Republic of Venice, the Aztec Empire, and the Inca Empire.

5.C.4. “Compare and contrast the roles and rights and limitations on individuals in different civilizations and societies from 600 - 1600 CE to those in the United States and Louisiana. Examine how the ideals, institutions, religious freedom and individual examples of human liberty, individualism, and republican self-government in medieval and Renaissance Europe contributed to the formation of modern American ideals.

5.C. New Items.

Add: “Identify the ideals, institutions, and individual examples of human liberty, individualism, religious freedom, and republican self-government in medieval and Renaissance Europe from 700 BC - 700 AD, with particular attention to the Renaissance ideals of civic humanism, Christian humanism, and tolerance, the Protestant and Catholic Reformations, and Bartolomeo de las Casas’ opposition to enslaving conquered American Indians.”

Add: “Assess the extent to which governments fulfilled ideals of human liberty, individualism, religious freedom, and republican self-government. Including but not limited to methods used in China, Feudal Europe, Byzantium, the Islamic Caliphates, the Republic of Venice, the Aztec Empire, and the Inca Empire.

5.E.1. “Analyze how the interaction between producers and consumers satisfied economic wants and needs desires within and across civilizations and empires between 600 - 1600 AD. Including but not limited to the emergence of global markets, and the demand for luxury goods following the Crusades.”

5.E.3. “Compare how different economic systems choose to allocate the production, distribution, and consumption of resources. To include but not limited to Feudalism in medieval Europe and India, commercialization in Renaissance Europe and Song China, and the Incan system of centralized production and distribution, and mercantilism.

Note: Mercantilism is a post-1600 theory.

5.E.4. “Explain how market conditions and economic activity impacted affected the development of civilizations, empires, and nations from 600 - 1600 AD.”

5.E.5. “Analyze how governmental decisions impact affect economic well-being prosperity.”

5.E.6. “Analyze how scarcity, incentives, opportunity costs, economic stability, and competition impact affect economic decision-making.”

5.E.7. “Analyze the extent of the increase in interregional trading systems of the Americas, Africa, Asia, and Europe between 600 - 1600 AD.”

5.E.8. “Describe how trade leads the extent to which trade led to increasing economic interdependence among nations between 600 - 1600 AD.”

5.E.9. “Analyze how specialization, comparative advantage, competition, and new technology influence increased the production and exchange of goods and services in civilizations and empires between 600 - 1600 AD.”

5.E. New Items.

Add: “Contrast the ideal of economic freedom and the medieval and Renaissance world’s practices of economic coercion, including serfdom and slavery. Including but not limited to slave regimes in pre-Columbian America, the Islamic world, and Europe’s American colonies, as well as varieties of serfdom in western Europe, Russia, China, and India.

5.G.4. “Explain how societies civilizations and empires of Afro-Eurasia and the Americas between 600 - 1600 AD impacted the environment in a variety of ways. Including but not limited to salinization, pollution, and decreasing soil fertility. successfully modified their environment to settle and improve the land. Including but not limited to land reclamation (Dutch polders) and the dissemination of European crops and domestic animals to the Americas.

5.G.5. “Describe how cooperation and conflict within and among the societies Explain how civilizations and empires of Afro-Eurasia and the Americas between 600 - 1600 AD influenced the division and competed to control of land and resources. To include but not limited to Ghana, Mali, and Songhai’s control over much of the world’s gold supply, military conflict between Aztec and Inca empires with Spain, and the development of the Columbian Exchange the Chinese and European silk industries, the trans-Saharan gold trade, Spanish investment in New World silver mines, the Portuguese spice monopoly, and the effects of the Columbian Exchange.”

5.G.6. “Analyze ways in which one culture can both positively and negatively influence another through cultural diffusion, trade relationships, expansion and exploration, and colonization. Including but not limited to economic growth in Europe following exploration and colonization, the devastation of indigenous populations due to smallpox and other diseases. Analyze the positive and negative effects of civilizational expansion. Including but not limited to the Muslim conquests from Spain to India, the Mongol invasions of Eurasia, European economic growth during the Age of Discovery, and the deadly spread of Old-World diseases in the Americas.”  

Grade 6 (pp. 26-29)

6.H.2. “Analyze connections between events and developments in U.S. history from 1580 to 1791 and with global historical events and developments with their European background and context. Including but not limited to the Iroquois Wars and the demand for fur in Europe, events in Europe and the Americas prior to and during European exploration and colonization and the role of the Enlightenment on the development of the U.S. government. the Renaissance rebirth of ideals of individual liberty and republican self-government, the Protestant Reformation, the Scientific Revolution, mercantilism, the Enlightenment, and the Anglo-French duel for imperial supremacy.

6.H.3. “Analyze conflict and compromise that occurred in North America from 1580 to 1791. Including but not limited to the convergence of the Europeans, American Indians, and Africans; slave rebellions including the Stono Rebellion; Indigenous societies in North America before and after European colonization; African societies before and after the transatlantic slave trade; British colonial America before and after the American Revolution. Analyze the establishment of British North America and the foundation of the United States of America from 1580 to 1791. Including but not limited to the contrast between Puritan New England, Quaker Pennsylvania, Anglican Virginia, and Catholic Louisiana; the development of colonial self-government; wars among the French, the English, and the American Indians; the importation of indentured servants and slaves; the eighteenth-century expansion of colonial America to include Scots-Irish, Germans, and African Americans; and the eighteenth-century development of the evangelical abolitionist movement.

6.H.4. “Analyze multiple factors that influenced the perspectives of individuals and groups from 1580 to 1791. Explain how different Americans interpreted select historical events in different ways from 1580 to 1791. Including but not limited to the First Great Awakening, the French and Indian War, the Declaration of Independence and the American Revolution.

6.H.5. “Analyze the contributions and experiences of and limitations on diverse groups of people in the development of the United States of America from 1580 to 1791. Including but not limited to women, Indigenous people, free and enslaved people, immigrant groups, and religious groups.”

Note: 6.H.4, as emended, provides coverage. Delete and do not replace.

6.H.8. “Analyze perspectives beliefs, experiences, and contributions of various groups and individuals in Louisiana during the period 1580 to 1791. Including but not limited to Indigenous groups including the Houma, Tunica-Biloxi, Chitimacha and Choctaw, La Salle, Iberville, Bienville, Gálvez, enslaved people, Acadians, and immigrants Acadians, Spaniards, African Americans, American Indians, La Salle, Iberville, Bienville, and Gálvez.

6.C.3. “Analyze foreign policies of the North American colonies and the U.S. government with other nations and countries. Including but not limited to Britain, Spain, France, and various Indigenous groups Indian tribes.

6.C.4. “Describe the different systems of government. Including but not limited to monarchy, republic, federal, confederate, unitary, representative, direct, and democracy, tribal.

6.C.7. “Explain debates that took place in the framing and ratification of the U.S. Constitution and the role of civic and democratic republican principles. Including but not limited to individual liberties, checks and balances, rule of law, due process, private property rights, frequent and free elections in a representative government, and federalism.”

6.E.3. “Describe how property rights are defined, protected, and enforced, and limited by the government.”

6.G.3. “Analyze how people individuals or groups of people affected, modified, or adapted to the environment of North America from 1600 to 1791.”  

Grade 7 (pp. 30-33)

7.H.2. “Explain ideas and events in the history of the United States of America from 1789 to 1877 and how they progressed, changed, or remained the same over time. Including but not limited to the Whiskey Rebellion, Indian Removal Act, Fugitive Slave Act, Reconstruction Amendments and reforms. Jacksonian democracy, Texan independence, Manifest Destiny, and Reconstruction.

7.H.3. “Analyze connections between events and developments in U.S. history from 1789 to 1877 and with global historical events and developments. Including but not limited to the Civil War within the context of slavery and sectionalism; the French Revolution; the Haitian Revolution; the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812. the French Revolution; the Barbary Wars; the Haitian Revolution; the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812; the Spanish American Wars of Independence; and the Civil War within the context of slavery and sectionalism.

7.H.5. “Explain the role and significance of political and military leaders and other individuals and groups in domestic and foreign affairs, conflicts, and policies from 1789 to 1877. Including but not limited to George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Stephen Decatur, Lewis and Clark, John Calhoun, Andrew Jackson, Sitting Bull, Crazy Horse, Chief Joseph, James K. Polk, Stephen Austin, Horace Mann, Susan B. Anthony, Dorothea Dix, William Lloyd Garrison, Abraham Lincoln, Winfield Scott, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass, and other abolitionists.

7.H.6. “Analyze multiple factors events that influenced the perspectives affected the beliefs of individuals and groups from 1789 to 1877. Including but not limited to the USS Constitution vs HMS Guerriere, the Indian Removal Act, the Siege of the Alamo, the Seneca Falls Convention, the publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, the siege of Fort Sumter, and the assassination of Abraham Lincoln.

7.H.7. “Analyze the contributions and experiences of and limitations on diverse groups of people in the development of the United States of America from 1789 to 1877. Including but not limited to women, American Indians, free and enslaved people, and immigrant groups.”

Note: 7.H.6, as emended, provides coverage. Delete and do not replace.

7.H.8. “Explain causes and effects of events and developments from 1789 to 1877. Including but not limited to the presidencies and events of the Early Republic, the War of 1812, slave revolts, the Industrial Revolution, technological innovations, social reform movements, westward expansion until 1860, the Mexican-American War, the Civil War, and Reconstruction until 1877.

7.H.10. “Analyze perspectives beliefs, experiences, and contributions of various groups and individuals in Louisiana during the period 1789 to 1877. Including but not limited to William C. C. Claiborne, Jean Lafitte, Oscar Dunn and P.B.S. Pinchback.

7.C.3. “Analyze foreign and domestic policies and developments in the United States of America from 1789 to 1877. Including but not limited to the Louisiana Purchase, the Embargo Act of 1807, and the Monroe Doctrine, and James K. Polk’s acquisition of the western third of the continental United States.”

7.C.4. “Describe the different political, civil, reform, and religious organizations and movements that influenced U.S. history from 1789 to 1877. Including but not limited to the Second Great Awakening, the temperance movement, Sunday Schools, foreign missions, prison reform, school reform, mental asylums, orphanages, foster care, the women’s rights movement of the nineteenth century, the abolitionist movement, Civil War nursing, and veterans’ pensions.

7.C.5. “Analyze the expansion and restriction of different movements to expand and restrict citizenship, rights, and political power on diverse groups in the United States of America from 1789 to 1877.”

7.C.6. “Evaluate the social, political, and economic changes that have influenced affected the interpretation and application of the Constitution and evolution of law from 1789 to 1877. Including but not limited to the Bill of Rights, Marbury v. Madison, Dred Scott v. Sanford, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.

7.E.1. “Evaluate the influence of technology, innovation, and supply and demand on the development of the U.S. economy from 1789 to 1877. Including but not limited to mass production the cotton gin, factories, the telegraph, farm machinery, anesthesia, and interchangeable parts.

Note: “Mass production” usually refers to Henry Ford’s innovations in the early twentieth century.

7.G.5. “Analyze how natural resources and economic incentives influenced affected how people interacted with their environments in the United States of America from 1789 to 1877. Including but not limited to gold rushes, and the Homestead Act.

7.G.7. “Analyze the social and cultural effects of technology and innovation in the United States of America from 1789 to 1877. Including but not limited to the telegraph, roads, and canals, and Manifest Destiny.

7.G.8. “Analyze causes and effects of migration to and within the United States of America and Louisiana from 1789 to 1877. Including but not limited to economic opportunities, western settlement, the Texas migration, the Great Irish and German Migration of the 1840s, the Great Mormon Migration, and the forced displacement of American Indians.”  

Grade 8 (pp. 34-37)

8.H.2. “Explain ideas and events in the history of the United States of America from 1877 to 1975 and how they progressed, changed, or remained the same over time. Including but not limited to Populism, Progressivism, Prohibition, the Great Depression and the New Deal, Pearl Harbor, the Civil Rights movement in the context of Jim Crow, and the Cold War.

8.H.3. “Analyze connections between events and developments in U.S. history from 1877 to 1975 and with global historical events and developments. Including but not limited to the Civil Rights movement in the context of Jim Crow; U.S. entry into World War II and events in Europe. Including but not limited to the Boxer Rebellion, World War I, the rise of Soviet Russia and Nazi Germany, World War II, the Iron Curtain, the Communist takeover of China, and Europe’s retreat from empire.

8.H.4. “Analyze factors leading to and effects of demographic and cultural changes in the period 1877 to 1975. Including but not limited to western settlement, the closing of the frontier, New Immigration (from Southern and Eastern Europe), and the Southern Exodus.

8.H.5. “Analyze the impact of effect of innovations in science, technology, innovations, and media and explain how these developments have altered society from 1877 to 1975. Including but not limited to mass production, automobiles, airplanes, radio, movies, and television.

8.H.6. “Explain the role and significance of political and military leaders and other individuals and groups in domestic and foreign affairs, conflicts, and policies during the period from 1877 to 1975. Including but not limited to Booker T. Washington, William Jennings Bryan, Theodore Roosevelt, Billy Sunday, Calvin Coolidge, Charles Curtis, Dwight Eisenhower, George S. Patton, the Tuskegee Airmen, and Navajo Code talkers during World War II Martin Luther King, Jr., and Phyllis Schlafly.

8.H.7. “Analyze multiple factors events that influenced the perspectives of individuals and groups from 1877 to 1975. Including but not limited to American Indian perspectives regarding U.S. assimilation policies. the Ghost Dance, the Homestead Strike, the sinking of the U.S.S. Maine, the sinking of the Lusitania, Charles Lindbergh’s solo trans-Atlantic flight, Pearl Harbor, the 1963 March on Washington, and the 1968 Democratic Convention.

8.H.8. “Analyze the contributions and experiences of and limitations on diverse groups of people in the development of the United States of America from 1877 to 1975. Including but not limited to women, Latinos, American Indians, Black Americans, European immigrants, and Asian immigrants and religious groups.”

Note: 8.H.7, as emended, provides coverage. Delete and do not replace.

8.H.9. “Explain causes and effects of events and developments from 1877 to 1975 including but not limited to Post-Reconstruction, the Gilded Age, Jim Crow, Industrialization, American Indian Wars, US imperialistic policies, Progressivism, World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, the Cold War, and the Civil Rights movement.”

8.H.10. “Analyze the economic, political, and social impact effect of Louisiana in U.S. history and world history during the period from 1877 to 1975 through major events. Including but not limited to World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, and the Civil Rights movement.

8.H.11. “Analyze perspectives, beliefs, experiences, and contributions of various groups and individuals in Louisiana during the period 1877 to 1975. Including but not limited to the Coushatta, Louis Armstrong, Huey P. Long, Andrew Higgins, Ruby Bridges, Homer Plessy and Madam CJ Walker.

8.C.2. “Analyze the origins, purposes, and impact effect of proclamations, policies, treaties, and international agreements relating to foreign policy in the United States of America from 1877 to 1975. Including but not limited to the Open Door policy, the annexation of the Philippines, “Big Stick Diplomacy”, Dollar Diplomacy, and Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, the Treaty of Versailles, the Good Neighbor Policy, the Yalta Conference, and the Potsdam Agreement, the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, NATO, Alliance for Progress, General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs, Mutually Assured Destruction, and Detente.

8.C.3. “Analyze the effects of cultural and social movements on society in the United States of America from 1877 to 1975. Including but not limited to Tin Pan Alley, Hollywood, the Harlem Renaissance, Southern Agrarians, evangelical revivalism, the women’s suffrage movement, unionization, the Civil Rights movement, and the New Right.

8.C.4. “Explain the reasons for and responses to political corruption from 1877 to 1975. Including but not limited to the spoils system, political machines during the Gilded Age, and the Teapot Dome Scandal, Richard Daley, Chappaquiddick, and Watergate.

8.C.5. “Analyze the role of political violence in the development of the United States of America from 1877 to 1975.”

Note: 8.H.2, as emended, provides coverage. Delete and do not replace.

8.C.6. “Explain the origins, consequences, and legacies of genocides that occurred in world history and their influence on U.S. foreign policy from 1877 to 1975. Including but not limited to the Armenian genocide, the Holodomor, the Nanjing Massacre, and the Holocaust, and the Tibetan genocide.

Note: Radical activists now refer to American assimilation policies as “cultural genocide.” Louisiana should retain this item only if it carefully defines “genocide” as “the deliberate murder of a large portion of an entire nation.”

8.C.7. “Compare how individual rights, freedoms, and responsibilities have evolved over time from 1877 to 1975. Analyze the expansion and restriction of individual rights, freedoms, and responsibilities from 1877 to 1975. Including but not limited to the New Deal, the Administrative Procedure Act, and the Civil Rights Act.

8.C.8. “Evaluate the social, political, and economic changes that have impacted affected the interpretation and application of the Constitution and evolution of law from 1877 to 1975. Including but not limited to Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad (1886), Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Amendments, and Roe v. Wade (1973).

8.E.1. “Evaluate the impact of technology, science, and innovation on the economy and culture of the United States of America from 1877 to 1975. Including but not limited to consumerism, and assembly line production.

Note: 8.H.5, as emended, provides coverage. Delete and do not replace.

8.E.2. “Analyze multiple factors that have impacted affected the U.S. economy from 1877 to 1975. Including but not limited to inflation, labor, monetary policy, resources, trade, and unemployment.

8.G.5. “Explain the significance of natural resources in national and international conflict. Including but not limited to the American Indian Wars, the Spanish American War, and World War I, and World War II.

8.G.6. “Analyze political, economic, environmental effects of natural and man-made disasters in the history of the United States of America. Including but not limited to the 1900 Hurricane in Galveston, the Dust Bowl, the Great Flood of 1927, and Hurricane Audrey.”

8.G.7. “Evaluate the purposes and efficacy of U.S. government environmental policies, regulations, and actions from 1877 to 1975. Including to but not limited to the conservation of natural lands under Theodore Roosevelt, the Civilian Conservation Corps under Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and the Nixon Administration’s creation of the Environmental Protection Agency.

8.G.8. “Analyze causes and effects of migration to and within the United States of America and Louisiana from 1877 to 1975. Including but not limited to increases in European immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and the Great Migration.”

Note: 8.H.4, as emended, provides coverage. Delete and do not replace.  

Civics (pp. 38-41)

C.H.2. “Analyze the role, major contributions of, and limitations placed on diverse groups and individuals in the development of the United States of America and Louisiana. Including but not limited to American Indians, Black Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans, women, and immigrant and refugee groups, people with disabilities, and LGBT people. Analyze the different ways in which Americans, especially Louisianans, have contributed to the development of American liberty. Including but not limited to soldiers, preachers, businessmen, politicians, and ordinary citizens.

C.H.3. “Evaluate varying perspectives on beliefs about political and civic issues, including different systems and structures of government.”

Note: This is too vague as written. Unless it is clarified, it should be deleted.

C.H.4. “Analyze causes and effects of events in U.S. history that influenced the development of laws, processes, and civic participation.”

Note: “Civic participation” can euphemize “action civics,” also known as “protest civics”— vocational training in progressive activism. Louisiana should explicitly bar all action civics to prevent this abuse or delete reference to “civic participation.”

C.C.3. “Analyze the election process at the local, state, and national levels, including the checks and balances provided by qualifications and procedures for voting. Including but not limited to the electoral college, qualifications to run for office, terms of office, civic participation, public hearings, forums, at large voting, petition, local referendums, voting amendments, and types of elections.

Note: “Civic participation” can euphemize “action civics,” also known as “protest civics”— vocational training in progressive activism. Louisiana should explicitly bar all action civics to prevent this abuse or delete reference to “civic participation.”

C.C.5. “Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of technologies and innovations in politics and government, and how they affect media, civic discourse, and credibility of sources. Including but not limited to blogs, digital apps, media literacy, social media, video-sharing platforms, and websites.

Note: “Media literacy” policies frequently double as instruction to support uncredulous belief in the mainstream media, and hence uncredulous belief in progressive propaganda. Louisiana should delete this item from the Standards if it cannot be revised to prevent this abuse.

C.C.9. “Analyze the origins, fundamental principles, development, and structure of the U.S. system of government and its formation. Including but not limited to the Magna Carta, the Mayflower Compact, Enlightenment philosophies, English Bill of Rights, Declaration of Independence, the Articles of the Confederation, and the Constitution of the United States of America, and the Federalist papers.”

C.C.10. “Evaluate the U.S. Constitution’s amendment process and how the Constitution has been interpreted and applied over time by the executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Including but not limited to Creator-endowed unalienable rights of the people, due process, equal justice under the law, “establishment clause,” federalism, frequent and free elections in a representative government, individual responsibility, individual rights outlined in the Bill of Rights, judicial review, precedents, private property rights, right to privacy, rule of law, stare decisis, supremacy, symbolic speech, the structure of government and separation of powers with checks and balances.

Note: “Supremacy” is undefined and should be deleted.

C.C.11. “Evaluate the reasoning for Supreme Court decisions and their political, social, and economic effects. Including but not limited to Marbury v. Madison (1803), McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831), Dred Scott v Sandford (1857), Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad (1886), Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), Schenck v. United States (1919), Korematsu v. United States (1944), Brown v. Board of Education (1954), Baker v. Carr (1962), Engel v. Vitale (1962), Gideon v. Wainwright (1963), Miranda v. Arizona (1966), Loving v. Virginia (1967), Tinker v. Des Moines (1969), New York Times Co. v. United States (1971), Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972), Roe v. Wade (1973), United States v. Nixon (1974), Shaw v. Reno (1993), United States v. Lopez (1995), Bush v. Gore (2000), DC v Heller (2008), McDonald v. Chicago (2010), Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010), Obergefell v Hedges (2015), Little Sisters of the Poor v Pennsylvania (2020).

C.C.12. “Analyze the roles of how citizens of Louisiana and the United States of America in terms of civic responsibilities, participation, engagement, advocacy, and life, and explain criteria for membership or admission sustain the republic. Including but not limited to interacting successfully with government agencies, individual self-reliance, patriotic celebration, jury duty, service in the armed forces and the police, lobbying, organizing and working in civic groups, petitioning, picketing, residency volunteering, running for political office, and voting.

C.C.13. “Explain the importance of civic values to a well-functioning democracy republic. Including but not limited to conviction vs. compromise, majority rule vs. minority rights, rights vs. responsibilities, and state interests vs. individual interests states’ rights vs. federal power.”

C.C.14. “Analyze the progression and expansion of civil rights, liberties, social and economic equality, and opportunities for groups experiencing discrimination in the United States of America over time. Analyze the expansion and contraction of individual liberties, civil rights, and equality under the law.

C.C.15. “Analyze how local, state, and national governments disenfranchised enfranchised groups throughout U.S. history and its effects.”

C.E.3. “Explain the effects of government policies to improve and degrade market outcomes, including both intended and unintended consequences. Including but not limited to how taxation affects economic activity, surpluses, budget deficits, and the national debt.

C.G.3. “Analyze how environmental issues and events, such as natural and human-made disasters, have affected elections, policies, and laws.”  

United States History (pp. 42-45)

US.H.1. “Explain connections between past and present ideas, events, and developments. Including but not limited to the Constitution and how it has evolved been amended over time, possible connections between industrialization and imperialism; U.S. expansion and influence before and after 1898; American Indian Wars and U.S. exploration and expansion; Populism and Progressivism; the Civil War, Reconstruction, and post-Reconstruction eras and the Civil Rights movement; World War I, World War II, and the Cold War; events and developments before and after 2010.

US.H.3. “Analyze connections between events and developments in U.S. history from 1898 to 2010 and with global historical events and developments. Including but not limited to the Spanish American War, World War I, the Great Depression, World War II, Cold War, Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the Global War on Terrorism.

US.H.4. “Evaluate factors leading to and effects of demographic and cultural changes from 1898 until 2010. Including but not limited to Tin Pan Alley, Hollywood, the Harlem Renaissance, Southern Agrarians, the Great Migration, the “Roaring Twenties”, the “Okies”, and urbanization, evangelical revivalism, women’s suffrage movement, unionization, the Civil Rights movement, and the New Right.

US.H.5. “Explain the evolution of the relationships with other countries and how these interactions have affected both the United States of America and other countries in the period 1898 until 2010. Including but not limited to the Gentleman’s Agreement, the First and Second Red Scare. Soviet espionage, Nixon’s Opening to China, and the Two Plus Four Agreement.

US.H.6. Evaluate the influence of science, technology, innovations, and media and explain how these developments have altered society in the United States of America from 1898 to 2010. Including but not limited to statistical analysis, computers, nuclear power, rockets, satellites, lasers, fracking, and social media.

US.H.7. “Evaluate historical events from a variety of historical and cultural perspectives that occurred from 1898 to 2010. Including but not limited to imperialists vs. Indigenous groups, political and military leaders, political and economic ideologies, class, race, ethnicity, and gender. Evaluate the beliefs of individuals and groups about multiple events. Including but not limited to the debates about Prohibition, whether to enter World War II, whether to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), and whether to ratify the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

US.H.8. “Analyze the role, major contributions of, and limitations placed on diverse groups of people in the United States of America from 1898 to 2010. Including but not limited to women, Latinos, American Indians, Black Americans, European immigrants, and Asian immigrants.”

Note: US.H.7, as emended, provides coverage. Delete and do not replace.

US.H.9. “Analyze causes and effects of events and developments from 1898 to 2010 including but not limited to US imperialistic policies, America’s growth as a world power, World War I, Great Depression, World War II, the Civil Rights Movement, the Cold War, social and cultural movements, and domestic and foreign policies.”

US.H.10. “Evaluate the contributions of Louisiana peoples and analyze Louisiana’s influence throughout major historical events in the period from 1898 to 2010. Including but not limited to the Birthplace of Jazz, jazz music, Huey Long and Share Our Wealth, and Higgins Boats in WWII.

US.C.2. “Evaluate U.S. foreign policies, conflicts, and international relationships and their effects on the United States of America as well as other regions and countries from 1898 until 2010. Including but not limited to the American defeat of Imperial Germany, Nazi Germany, Imperial Japan, and Soviet Russia; and the creation of the UN, NATO, GATT, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund.

US.C.3. “Explain the goals, strategies, and effects of social, economic, and political movements in the period 1898 to 2010. Including but not limited to the Progressive movement, the Immigration Restriction League, the Lausanne Movement, the Civil Rights movement, counterculture, American Indian Movement, Chicano Movement, Women’s Rights movement, STOP ERA, the Moral Majority, and the Contract with America, the Tea Party, and Make America Great Again.

US.C.4. “Explain the role of the military and technology during conflicts involving the United States of America from 1898 to 2010. Including but not limited to the Rough Riders during the Spanish American War, use of airplanes and tanks during World War I, the Tuskegee Airmen and Navajo Code talkers during World War II, and the Manhattan Project. Walter Reed, the Great White Fleet, Billy Mitchell, aircraft carriers, strategic bombing, the MIT Radiation Laboratory, the Manhattan Project, rockets, nuclear submarines, satellites, stealth technology, and military medicine.

US.C.7. “Analyze the origins, consequences, and legacies of genocides that occurred in world history and their influence on U.S. foreign policy from 1898 to 2010. Including but not limited to the Armenian genocide, the Holodomor, the Nanjing Massacre, the Holocaust, the Tibetan genocide, the Cambodian genocide, and the Rwandan genocide, and ethnic cleansing.

Note: Radical activists now refer to American assimilation policies as “cultural genocide.” Louisiana should only retain this item if it carefully defines “genocide” as “the deliberate murder of a large portion of an entire nation.”

US.C.9. “Evaluate how civic and democratic American principles were applied, at home and abroad, during various historical events in the period 1898 to 2010.”

Note: This is too vague as written. Unless it is clarified, it should be deleted.

US.C.10. “Analyze the causes and effects of domestic and foreign terrorism on the United States of America from 1898 to 2010. Including but not limited to the Ku Klux Klan, the Anarchist Bombings in 1919, Fuerzas Armadas de Liberación Nacional, the Weather Underground, the Black Panthers, Timothy McVeigh, Al Qaeda, and Antifa.

US.E.2. “Explain how the U.S. government manages attempts to manage the economy, and directs public support throughout major domestic and international events. Including but not limited to the role of tariffs and embargoes, propaganda and Committee on Public Information during WWI, and the Great Recession.”

US.G.5. “Analyze the political, economic, environmental, and social effects of natural and human-made disasters in the United States of America from 1898 to 2010. Including but not limited to the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire, the Great Mississippi Flood, the Dust Bowl, and Hurricane Katrina and the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill.”  

World History (pp. 46-49)

WH.H.1. “Analyze connections among past and present ideas, events, and developments across time and place. Including but not limited to connections with content before 1300, and since 2010.”

Note: This is too vague as written. Unless it is clarified, it should be deleted.

WH.H.2. “Analyze ideas and events in world history from 1300 to 2010 and how they progressed, changed or remained the same over time.”

Note: This is too vague as written. Unless it is clarified, it should be deleted.

WH.H.3. “Evaluate the influence of science, technology, innovations, and explain how these developments have altered societies in the world from 1300 to 2010. Including but not limited to the printing press, the Scientific Revolution, the steam engine, the printing press, the Industrial Revolution, the nineteenth-century invention of the modern intellectual disciplines, the industrial revolution, and military technology.

WH.H.4. “Evaluate historical events from a variety of historical and cultural perspectives that occurred from 1300 to 2010. Including but not limited to imperialists vs. independence movements, political and economic ideologies, class, race, ethnicity, religion, and gender. Evaluate the beliefs of individuals and groups about multiple events that occurred from 1300 to 2010.

WH.C.2. “Analyze the origins and emergence of various economic principles and their effects on political institutions throughout the world from 1300 to 2010. Including but not limited to feudalism, mercantilism, capitalism economic liberty, socialism, and communism.

WH.C.3. “Explain the powers and responsibilities of local, state, tribal, national, and international civic, religious, and political institutions and their efforts to address social and political problems.”

WH.C.6. “Analyze political and social structures throughout the world from 1300 to 1600. Including but not limited to the Holy Roman Empire, Yuan Dynasty, the Aztecs, and the Empire of Mali. England and France, the Italian city states, and the Ottoman, Persian, Mughal, and Chinese empires.

WH.C.7. “Analyze the development and contribution of key enlightenment Enlightenment ideas to the structure and function of civic and political institutions from 1600 to 2010. Including but not limited to humanism, liberty, tolerance, state of nature, social contract, and natural rights.

WH.C.8. “Analyze the causes, effects, and reactions to imperialism from 1450 to 1945 and the experiences of those who were colonized. Including but not limited to the scramble for Africa, colonization of the Americas, and US imperialistic policies the Aztec empire in Mexico, the Ottoman Empire in Balkan Europe, the European empires in Africa, the Japanese empire in Korea and China, and the Soviet empire in Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

WH.C.9. “Analyze causes and effects of political revolutions of the 18th, and 19th, and 20th centuries throughout the world. Including but not limited to the American Revolution, the French Revolution, the Haitian Revolution, the Russian Revolution, the Mexican Revolution, and the Chinese Revolution and the American Revolution.

WH.C.10. “Analyze the origins, consequences, and legacies of genocides that occurred in world history from 1914 to 2010. Including but not limited to the Armenian genocide, the Holodomor, the Nanjing Massacre, the Holocaust, the Tibetan genocide, the Cambodian genocide, and the Rwandan genocide.”

Note: Radical activists now refer to American assimilation policies as “cultural genocide.” Louisiana should only retain this item if it carefully defines “genocide” as “the deliberate murder of a large portion of an entire nation.”

WH.C.13. “Analyze civic and democratic ideals that have influenced world governments from 1300 to 2010. Including but not limited to freedom, liberty, and equal justice for all.”

Note: The entire course should be organized around this item—with the replacement of “civic and democratic ideals” with “ideals and institutions of liberty”.

WH.C.16. “Analyze goals, strategies, and effects of movements to gain freedom and political and social equality in world history from 1914 to 2010. Including but not limited to violent and non-violent actions, the collapse of the Soviet empire, and the Tiananmen Square Massacre.

WH.E.1. “Describe how global, national, and regional economic policies impact affect individual life decisions over time.”

Note: This is too vague as written. Unless it is clarified, it should be deleted.

WH.E.4. “Explain economic, demographic, social, and cultural consequences of forced displacement of people and the expansion of slavery into the Americas from 1300 to 1863. Including but not limited to the encomienda system, plantation-based slavery, and colonial enslavement of Indigenous people. Analyze the wide variety of systems of coerced labor throughout the world and the exceptional emergence of the ideal and practice of free labor in Western Europe and the United States. Including but not limited to Comanche, Aztec, and Muslim slavery, serfdom in Europe, India, and China, the encomienda system, and plantation-based slavery.

WH.G.2. “Analyze the effect that humans have had on the environment in terms of resources, migration patterns, and global environmental issues the extraordinary rise in the global standard of living since 1800.”

WH.G.6. “Explain Evaluate the effectiveness of institutions designed to foster collaboration, compromise, and development from the post-Napoleonic era to the present.”

WH.G.7. “Analyze how advancements advances in communication, technology, and trade impact affect global interactions from 1300 to 2010.”

WH.G.8. “Analyze patterns of population distribution and migration from 1300 to 2010. Including but not limited to refugees of conflict, and urbanization. Including but not limited to urbanization, the associated reductions of child mortality and family size, and the increasing median age of economically advanced nations.”  

World Geography (pp. 50-53)

WG.H.4. “Connect past events, people, and ideas to the present, use different perspectives to draw conclusions, and suggest current implications.”

Note: This is too vague as written. Unless it is clarified, it should be deleted.

WG.H.5. “Explain how landscape features, land, and resource use reflect affect cultural beliefs, and customs, and identities.”

WG.H.6. “Evaluate how historical processes including diffusion, colonialism, imperialism, modernization, trade, and migration influence current cultural practices.”

WG.H.9. “Analyze the historical and contemporary economic influence that Louisiana has on other world regions parts of the United States, and on the broader world.”

WG.C.1. “Compare various systems of government in terms of division of power, economic ideologies, and power structure how well they preserve political and economic liberty.”

WG.C.2. “Evaluate the purpose of how well local, state, and federal political institutions at various levels, local to supranational, and distinguish their roles, powers, and limitations work to preserve political and economic liberty.”

WG.C.3. “Analyze the role of regional governments and supranational organizations in how human rights issues have been addressed in different countries. Including but not limited to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). Analyze the birth of the conception of human rights in the aftermath of Nazi atrocities and the role of human rights movements in the resistance to the Soviet and Chinese regimes.

WG.C.5. “Describe nations and states using appropriate terminology. Including but not limited to the nation-state, and stateless nations such as the Uighurs, the Kurds, and the Catalans.”

WG.C.6. “Analyze actions in various regions taken by individuals and groups to gain freedom, equality, and protect human rights. Including but not limited to Soviet dissidents (Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Andrei Sakharov), Chinese dissidents (Chen Guangcheng), apartheid in South Africa (Nelson Mandela), and decolonization movements, and Brexit (Nigel Farage).

WG.E.3. “Describe social and economic measures of development in various countries including the Gross Domestic Product, Gross National Product, Gender Inequality Index (GDI), and Human Development Index (HDI) and Purchasing Power Parities.”

WG.E.4. “Analyze various economic philosophies that influenced the development of economies in various countries. Including but not limited to capitalism economic liberty, socialism, and communism.

WG.E.5. “Analyze how the allocation of the intelligent use of available resources can impact affect the distribution of wealth and income across various world regions.”

WG.E.8. “Analyze the role of economic policies and relationships of supranational organizations. Including but not limited to the United Nations, North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement, United States–Mexico–Canada Agreement, and the European Union.”

WG.E.9. “Analyze Louisiana’s economic system and its relationship with other world regions within the context of increasing global interdependence.”

WG.G.3. “Compare and contrast various types of maps and map projections and evaluate physical distortions associated with each map projection.”

WG.G.8. “Analyze various scales to determine human influence on global environmental issues evaluate the effectiveness of different means to manage the environment to maximize prosperity. Including but not limited to industrial pollution regulation, resource conservation, land degradation, and climate change and the adoption of nuclear power.

WG.G.11. “Explain the economic, social, demographic, political, and environmental effects of historical processes. Including but not limited to colonialism and imperialism Nazism, communism, and industrial development policies of postcolonial states.”

WG.G.13. “Analyze the influence that globalization, industrialization, natural resource allocation, and environmental issues have on Evaluate the effectiveness of different means to manage the environment to maximize prosperity in Louisiana and the United States.”

 

1 BESE Louisiana State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education, https://bese.louisiana.gov/.

2 David Randall, Issue Brief: The C3 Framework, National Association of Scholars, https://www.nas.org/blogs/article/issue-brief-the-c3-framework; Stanley Kurtz, “Consensus by Surrender,” National Review, June 10, 2021, https://www.nationalreview.com/corner/consensusby-surrender/.

4 Massachusetts History and Social Science Curriculum Framework (2003), https://www.nas.org/storage/app/media/New%20Documents/2003-08.pdf.

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