NAS Recommends Further Revisions to Kentucky's Academic Standards for Social Studies

National Association of Scholars

Editor's Note: The National Association of Scholars (NAS) and the Civics Alliance work to ensure that every state has academic standards that promote first-rate education and protect school children from political indoctrination. We promote reform of content standards in every state, along the lines modeled by the Civics Alliance’s American Birthright: The Civics Alliance’s Model K-12 Social Studies Standards, and we have been asked by Kentucky citizens to comment on the Kentucky Department of Education’s incorporation of the components of Kentucky Revised Statute (KRS) 158.196 into the Kentucky Academic Standards (KAS) for Social Studies (KAS-SS). We conclude that the Kentucky Department of Education has responded inadequately to the legislative mandate, that it should include a far greater range of primary sources in the KAS-SS, and that it should engage in far greater revisions of the KAS-SS to fulfill the spirit of the legislative mandate.

We have sent the following letter to the Kentucky Department of Education.


Kentucky Department of Education
300 Sower Blvd., 5th Floor
Frankfort, KY 40601

September 20, 2022

Dear Kentucky Department of Education,

The National Association of Scholars (NAS) and the Civics Alliance work to ensure that every state has academic standards that promote first-rate education and protect school children from political indoctrination. We promote reform of content standards in every state, along the lines modeled by the Civics Alliance’s American Birthright: The Civics Alliance’s Model K-12 Social Studies Standards,1 and we have been asked by Kentucky citizens to comment on the Department of Education’s incorporation of the components of Kentucky Revised Statute (KRS) 158.1962 into the Kentucky Academic Standards (KAS) for Social Studies (KAS-SS).3 We conclude that the Department of Education has responded inadequately to the legislative mandate, that it should include a far greater range of primary sources in the KAS-SS, and that it should engage in far greater revisions of the KAS-SS to fulfil the spirit of the legislative mandate.

Inadequate Response to KRS 158.196’s Legislative Mandate

KRS 158.196 directed in Section 1 that the Department of Education ensure that Kentucky’s social studies instruction was consistent with a series of American ideals, including equality, freedom, inalienable rights, respect for individual rights, liberty, and the consent of the governed. KRS 158.196 also directed in Section 3 that the Department of Education “incorporate fundamental American documents and speeches into the grade-level appropriate middle and high school social studies academic standards.” (See Appendix 1: The 24 Documents and Speeches Specified in KRS 158.196.) Kentucky’s current revisions to KAS-SS focus solely on the legislative mandate in Section 3. (See Appendix 2: Draft Revisions.) The mandate in Section 1 also should result in a separate round of revision to KAS-SS, and we urge the Department to undertake this revision as soon as possible. We suggest that American Birthright: The Civics Alliance’s Model K-12 Social Studies Standards would provide a useful model for revision to fulfil the Section 1 mandate. The remainder of our comment focuses on the Department’s response to Section 3.

The Department of Education may or may not have obeyed the letter of the legislative mandate. (For our uncertainty as to whether the revisions comply with the letter of KRS 158.196, see topics below, Clarify Incorporation into Standards and Incorporate All Documents into Both Middle-School and High School Standards.) The Department’s revisions certainly have made the fewest possible changes to KAS-SS. KRS 158.196’s Section 3 directed the Department of Education to incorporate “fundamental American documents and speeches … including but not limited to [our bold-face]” a list of 24 documents and speeches. The Department of Education has incorporated (with one important exception) only these 24 documents and speeches, and no others. (See Appendix 3: Revisions and Documents.)

The exception, the revision to add to 5.H.CH.2 Analyze the impact innovation and human ingenuity had on the development of the United States from Colonization to Constitution, the sentence “the inventions of Benjamin Franklin, such as the lightning rod, Franklin Stove and bifocals, helped shaped industry in the early United States,” demonstrates that the Department of Education could have added more historical details and primary sources, that these revisions need not have been limited to documents and speeches that illuminate the American civic tradition, and that such revisions would greatly improve the KAS-SS.

Even if the Department of Education indeed has obeyed the letter of the legislative mandate, its response is inadequate. The Department has used the same documents in several different clarification statements, rather than seek out a broader range of historical documents that would fit the standards and the clarification statements precisely. In some cases, it has made historical errors in the way it incorporated these historical documents.

  • The Department of Education made no changes to the High School Civics Standards and Clarification Statements to incorporate the documents specified by KRS 158.196.
  • The revisions incorporate two new items, Analyze the impact of fundamental documents on the development of the United States, which include all 24 historical documents mandated by the legislature (8.H.CH.6, HS.UH.CH.7). These two items should be fundamental revisions to the structure of KAS-SS, perhaps defined as an Inquiry Practice or as one of the Concepts and Practices. Every Standard and Clarification Statement concerning American history and civics should incorporate this Practice.

Where we discuss repetition of individual documents below, we do not include their mention in 8.H.CH.6 and HS.UH.CH.7.

  • The revisions incorporate The Constitution of the United States in four separate Clarification Statements in Grade 5 (5.C.PR.1, 5.C.KGO.1, 5.E.MA.1, 5.E.MA.2). The second Clarification Statement refers to “the roles and responsibilities of a Kentucky citizen,” and ought to include citation of the Kentucky State Constitution. The third and fourth Clarification Statements concern Macroeconomics, and the references to the Constitution have little pedagogical relevance.
  • The revisions incorporate the June 8, 1789 speech on amendments to the Constitution of the United States by James Madison in three separate Clarification Statements in Grade 8 (8.C.CP.1, 8.C.CP.2, 8.C.CP.3).
  • The revisions incorporate the ”What to the Slave is the Fourth of July” speech by Frederick Douglass, the United States Supreme Court opinion in Dred Scott v. Sanford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857), and the “Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States” by Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton in four separate Clarification Statements in Grade 8 (8.C.RR.1, 8.C.RR.2, 8.C.RR.3, 8.H.CO.3).
  • The revisions incorporate The 1796 Farewell Address by George Washington, The Monroe Doctrine, and “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July” by Frederick Douglass in five separate Clarification Statements in Grade 8 (8.H.CH.1, 8.H.CH.2, 8.H.CH.3, 8.H.CH.3, 8.H.CH.4, 8.H.CH.5). The revisions here introduce historical errors into KAS-SS.
    • 8.H.CH.1 refers to the colonial era. None of the three documents cited belong to the colonial era.
    • 8.H.CH.3 refers to the rise in sectionalism between 1840-1860. Neither the Farewell Address nor the Monroe Doctrine belong to this period, and neither may plausibly be presented as a prior influence on the rise in sectionalism.
    • 8.H.CH.4 refers to technological innovations. None of the three documents cited are relevant.
    • 8.H.CH.5 refers to 1860-1877. None of three documents cited belong to this era or are relevant to it—save, tangentially, Douglass’ speech.
  • The revisions incorporate The January 11, 1944, State of the Union Address by Franklin D. Roosevelt in three separate Clarification Statements in US History (HS.UH.CH.2, HS.UH.CE.2, HS.UH.CE.6). The document is only tangentially relevant to HS.UH.CE.2, which concerns “the events that caused the United States to emerge as a global power between 1890-1991.”
  • The revisions incorporate The September 18, 1895, Atlanta Exposition Address by Booker T. Washington, Of Booker T. Washington and Others by W.E.B. Du Bois, and
    The August 28, 1963, I Have a Dream speech by Martin Luther King, Jr. in two separate Clarification Statements in US History (HS.UH.CE.1, HS.UH.CE.5). These documents are only tangentially relevant to HS.UH.CE.1, which concerns “the political, economic and social impacts of industrialization on the United States between 1877-1945.”
  • The revisions incorporate A Time for Choosing by Ronald Reagan in three separate Clarification Statements in US History (HS.UH.CE.2, HS.UH.CE.6, HS.UH.CO.4). The document is only tangentially relevant to HS.UH.CE.6, which concerns “how global interactions impacted American culture and society from 1890- present.”
  • The revisions incorporate The United States Supreme Court opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896) in two separate Clarification Statements in US History (HS.UH.CE.5, HS.UH.KH.1). HS.UH.KH.1 concerns the role of Kentucky Justice John Marshall Harlan – whose dissent in Plessy v. Ferguson matters, but Harlan wrote other notable dissents, including Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. (1895) and Lochner v. New York (1905).
  • The revisions incorporate Letter from Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr. in two separate Clarification Statements in US History (HS.UH.CE.5, HS.UH.CE.6). The document is only tangentially relevant to HS.UH.CE.6, which concerns “how global interactions impacted American culture and society from 1890- present.”

The Department of Education was able to repeat the documents so frequently because the Standards and Clarification Statements are written very vaguely. Standards and Clarification Statements ought to be written with sufficient precision that a document cannot appear in multiple places in the same course standard.

The Department of Education’s revisions to fulfil KRS 158.196’s Section 3 mandate are inadequate. The Department at best barely complied with the minimum requirements of the law; it repeated the documents it did cite to an unusual degree; it cited many documents for standards where they possessed at best tangential relevance; and in some cases, it cited documents that have no relation at all to the individual standard item.

Recommendations

We make the following recommendations to the Kentucky Department of Education, so that it may fulfil the letter and the spirit of KRS 158.196’s legislative mandate.

  • Complete Revision: KRS 158.196 directs in Section 1 that the Department of Education ensure that Kentucky’s social studies instruction be consistent with a series of American ideals, including equality, freedom, inalienable rights, respect for individual rights, liberty, and the consent of the governed. KRS-SS should be completely re-written, to comply with the spirit of this legislative mandate. We recommend that the Department examine American Birthright: The Civics Alliance’s Model K-12 Social Studies Standards, which we believe provides a fine model for state social studies standards. We also recommend that the Department of Education examine the social studies standards in Louisiana4 and South Dakota,5 which provide different good models for social studies standards.
  • Clarify Incorporation into Standards: KRS 158.196 directed that “no later than July 1, 2023, the Kentucky Department of Education shall incorporate fundamental American documents and speeches into the grade-level appropriate middle and high school social studies academic standards.” The Department of Education proposes to incorporate these references to documents into the Clarification Statements rather than into the Standards themselves. In the case of the high school standards, the Department incorporates them into Clarification Statements that are part of the High School Disciplinary Clarifications and Instructional Support, which have not yet been formally incorporated into KAS-SS.6 We have been informed that “During the current revision process, which began in July 2022, the Advisory Panels and Review Committee decided to incorporate the current ‘High School Disciplinary Clarifications and Instructional Support’ document into the KAS for Social Studies.”7 Yet it is not clear that any of the Disciplinary Clarifications have the legal and administrative status of the Standards themselves, since KAS-SS declares throughout the document that “The identified disciplinary clarifications are possible suggestions; they are not the only pathways and are not comprehensive to obtain mastery of the standards.” It is not clear to us that the Department of Education has satisfied the legislative mandate in KRS 158.196 by making changes to the Disciplinary Clarifications rather than to the Standards themselves. We urge that the Department of Education incorporate historical documents into the Standards themselves rather than into the Disciplinary Clarifications. We also urge that the Department of Education formally ask the Kentucky State Legislature to clarify the intent of KRS 158.196.
  • Incorporate All Documents into Both Middle-School and High School Standards: KRS 158.196 directed that “the Kentucky Department of Education shall incorporate fundamental American documents and speeches into the grade-level appropriate middle and high school social studies academic standards.” The language suggests that the Kentucky legislature wished all 24 documents incorporated into the Middle-School Standards, and that all 24 documents also should be incorporated into the High-School Standards. The Department of Education instead has divided the 24 documents between the Middle-School Standards and the High-School Standards. We urge that the Department of Education incorporate all 24 documents into the Middle-School Standards, and that it also incorporate all 24 documents into the High-School Standards. We also urge that the Department of Education formally ask the Kentucky State Legislature to clarify the intent of KRS 158.196.
  • Make Impact of Fundamental Documents on the Development of the United States a Basic Principle: Impact of Fundamental Documents on the Development of the United States should be defined as an Inquiry Practice or as one of the Concepts and Practices. Every Standard and Clarification Statement concerning American history and civics should incorporate this Practice.
  • Revise High School Civics: The High School Civics Standards and Clarification Statements should incorporate historical documents, as specified by KRS 158.196.
  • Eliminate Repetition: As a rule of thumb, KRS-SS should cite different documents for each Clarification Statement.
  • Incorporate Many More Historical Documents: The Department of Education should not limit itself to the documents specified by KRS 158.196. KRS-SS should incorporate far more historical documents in its Standards and Clarification Statements—for World History as well as for United States History and Civics. We recommend that the Department of Education examine American Birthright: The Civics Alliance’s Model K-12 Social Studies Standards, which provides an extensive selection of primary sources. We also recommend that the Department of Education examine a selection of historical documents, keyed to the history of the intellectual background of the Founding Documents, the history of the United States, and the history of Kentucky, that we believe would directly fulfil the spirit of KRS 158.196’s legislative mandate. (See Appendix 4: Recommended Historical Documents.)
  • Licensure Requirements and Professional Development: The Department of Education also should update its licensure requirements and professional development to ensure that its teachers are equipped to teach curriculum that aligns with these Standards new emphasis in historical documents.
  • Statutory Reform: The Department of Education should ask state policymakers to enact laws that provide statutory complements to the reforms embodied in KRS 158.196, and which ensure proper social instruction in all Kentucky public K-12 schools.8

Conclusion

The Kentucky Department of Education has responded inadequately to the legislative mandate in KRS 158.196. The Department of Education should incorporate historical documents into the Standards themselves rather than into the Disciplinary Clarifications. It should revise KAS-SS to include a far greater range of primary sources, it should include all 24 specified historical documents both in the Middle-School Standards and in the High School Standards, and it should engage in far greater revisions of the KAS-SS to fulfil the spirit of the legislative mandate. We suggest that Kentucky examine our model American Birthright social studies standards, but we also suggest that Kentucky examine the fine alternate models of Louisiana and South Dakota.

Respectfully yours,

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Peter Wood
President, National Association of Scholars

 G:\Shared drives\NASSHARE\Development\Direct Mail\Signature - DR.jpg

David Randall
Project Director, Civics Alliance


Appendix 1: The 24 Documents and Speeches Specified in KRS 158.196

  1. The Mayflower Compact;
  2. The Declaration of Independence;
  3. The Constitution of the United States;
  4. The Federalist No. 1 (Alexander Hamilton);
  5. The Federalist Nos. 10 and 51 (James Madison);
  6. The June 8, 1789, speech on amendments to the Constitution of the United States by James Madison;
  7. The first ten (10) amendments to the Constitution of the United States, also known as the Bill of Rights;
  8. The 1796 Farewell Address by George Washington;
  9. The United States Supreme Court opinion in Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803);
  10. The Monroe Doctrine by James Monroe;
  11. What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? speech by Frederick Douglass;
  12. The United States Supreme Court opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857);
  13. Final Emancipation Proclamation by Abraham Lincoln;
  14. The Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln;
  15. Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States by Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton;
  16. The September 18, 1895, Atlanta Exposition Address by Booker T. Washington;
  17. Of Booker T. Washington and Others by W.E.B. Du Bois;
  18. The United States Supreme Court opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896);
  19. The August 31, 1910, New Nationalism speech by Theodore Roosevelt;
  20. The January 11, 1944, State of the Union Address by Franklin D. Roosevelt;
  21. The United States Supreme Court opinions in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) and Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 349 U.S. 294 (1955);
  22. Letter from Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr.;
  23. The August 28, 1963, I Have a Dream speech by Martin Luther King, Jr.; and
  24. A Time for Choosing by Ronald Reagan.

Appendix 2: Draft Revisions

Concept and Practice

Standard

Clarification Statement

C: Civic and Political Institutions

4.C.CP.1

Describe the diverse forms of self-government used by various groups in Colonial America.

Each colony established a type of self government (grounded in the principles of The Mayflower Compact) but each was ultimately under the control of the British monarchy. This includes, but is not limited to, town hall meetings held in New England colonies and the first permanent English Colony of Jamestown House of Burgesses.

C: Civic and Political Institutions

5.C.CP.2

Analyze the structure of the U.S. government, including separation of power and its system of checks and balances.

The Articles of Confederation formed shortly after the beginning of the Revolutionary War. This governing document ensured state sovereignty, allowing each state to be independent and govern itself. The central government established had very limited power. Later, the United States Constitution was established, creating the structure and rules for government, the powers and checks of each branch (grounded in arguments found in The Federalist Nos. 10 and 51 (James Madison)) and how changes can be made (the amendment process). The legislative branch makes the laws; the executive branch carries out the laws, and the judicial branch interprets the laws. Each branch has powers that allow them to check and balance the powers of the others. For example, the executive branch is responsible for nominating federal judges, who then must be confirmed by the legislative branch.

C: Processes, Rules and Laws

5.C.PR.1

Evaluate whether various rules and laws promote the general welfare, using historical and contemporary examples.

One of the goals of American government laid out in the Preamble to the Constitution of the United States is to promote the general welfare. The government does this in a variety of ways through more formal policies like welfare and informal policies like local food banks.

C: Kentucky Government

5.C.KGO.1

Explain the roles and responsibilities of a Kentucky citizen.

Kentucky citizens have certain roles and responsibilities to the state. Kentuckians also have personal rights as a citizen that are protected by the Constitution of the United States.

E: Macroeconomics

5.E.MA.1

Describe why the government collects taxes and what goods and services it provides society.

Governments need money to operate and provide services for their citizens. This money comes from taxes, as written in the Constitution of the United States. With new goods being created in the young nation, new markets sprang up leading to a new kind of economy, different from the colonial economy.

E: Macroeconomics

5.E.MA.2

Explain how the United States developed into a market economy.

Governments need money to operate and provide services for their citizens. This money comes from taxes, as written in the Constitution of the United States. With new goods being created in the young nation, new markets sprang up leading to a new kind of economy, different from the colonial economy.

H: Change and Continuity

5.H.CH.2

Analyze the impact innovation and human ingenuity had on the development of the United States from Colonization to Constitution.

Innovation, prior to 1789, resulted in a variety of impacts. For example, the inventions of Benjamin Franklin, such as the lightning rod, Franklin Stove and bifocals, helped shaped industry in the early United States.

H: Cause and Effect

5.H.CE.1

Analyze the causes of the American Revolution and the effects individuals and groups had on the conflict.

The American Revolution was caused by a variety of events that compounded over time, including many different British Acts, listed in the Declaration of Independence, that increased taxes on American colonists and limited settlement, such as the Stamp Act and the Proclamation of 1763. Other events that increased tension were the Boston Massacre, Boston Tea Party and Intolerable Acts.

H: Conflict and Compromise

5.H.CO.1

Analyze the role conflict and collaboration played in the founding of the United States.

The creation of the nation’s founding documents was not a simple task; a great deal of debate and compromise was involved to reach consensus and ratification. For example, representatives from both Virginia and New Jersey each wanted a legislature based on differing factors, and this argument ultimately led to the compromise of creating a two-house legislature in the central government. Also, with the ratification of the Constitution of the United States, differing opinions of the Federalists and Anti-Federalists regarding the rights of individuals and the power of the central government (for example in The Federalist No. 1 (Alexander Hamilton) and The Federalist Nos. 10 and 51 (James Madison)), led to the creation of the first ten (10) amendments to the Constitution of the United States, also known as the Bill of Rights.

C: Civic and Political Institutions

8.C.CP.1

Analyze the origin and purposes of rule of law, popular sovereignty, federalism, separation of powers and checks and balances.

Our founding documents derived from experiences with British rule in the colonies. With heavy influence from a variety of philosophers and intellectuals (for instance, the June 8, 1789 speech on amendments to the Constitution of the United States by James Madison), the Constitution and the Bill of Rights lay out the system of democratic rule as well as specified citizen rights.

C: Civic and Political Institutions

8.C.CP.2

Explain the origins, functions and structure of government, with reference to the Mayflower Compact, Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, Federalist Papers 1, 10, and 51, U.S. Constitution, Bill of Rights and other founding documents, and their impacts on citizens.

Our founding documents derived from experiences with British rule in the colonies. With heavy influence from a variety of philosophers and intellectuals (for instance, the June 8, 1789 speech on amendments to the Constitution of the United States by James Madison), the Constitution and the Bill of Rights lay out the system of democratic rule as well as specified citizen rights.

C: Civic and Political Institutions

8.C.CP.3

Explain how a system of checks and balances is intended to prevent a concentration of power in one branch.

Our founding documents derived from experiences with British rule in the colonies. With heavy influence from a variety of philosophers and intellectuals (for instance, the June 8, 1789 speech on amendments to the Constitution of the United States by James Madison), the Constitution and the Bill of Rights lay out the system of democratic rule as well as specified citizen rights.

C: Roles and Responsibilities of a Citizen

8.C.RR.1

Analyze the role of citizens in the U.S. political system, with attention to the definition of who is a citizen, expansion of that definition over time and changes in participation over time.

Citizenship has evolved throughout our nation’s history. Diverse groups, from American Indians to a variety of immigrant groups, have fought long, hard battles to gain U.S. citizenship and recognition of their civil rights. This battle involved people of every race, gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status. For example, the expansion of and restriction on citizenship is seen in the “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July” speech by Frederick Douglass, the United States Supreme Court opinion in Dred Scott v. Sanford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857), the passage of Reconstruction Amendments (13th - 15th) followed by Jim Crow restrictions and the “Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States” by Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

C: Roles and Responsibilities of a Citizen

8.C.RR.2

Analyze expansion of and restriction on citizenship and voting rights on diverse groups in the United States from the Colonial Era to Reconstruction from 1600-1877.

Citizenship has evolved throughout our nation’s history. Diverse groups, from American Indians to a variety of immigrant groups, have fought long, hard battles to gain U.S. citizenship and recognition of their civil rights. This battle involved people of every race, gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status. For example, the expansion of and restriction on citizenship is seen in the “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July” speech by Frederick Douglass, the United States Supreme Court opinion in Dred Scott v. Sanford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857), the passage of Reconstruction Amendments (13th - 15th) followed by Jim Crow restrictions and the “Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States” by Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

C: Roles and Responsibilities of a Citizen

8.C.RR.3

Analyze how groups in the United States have challenged Constitutional provisions, laws and court rulings denying them the rights of citizens.

Citizenship has evolved throughout our nation’s history. Diverse groups, from American Indians to a variety of immigrant groups, have fought long, hard battles to gain U.S. citizenship and recognition of their civil rights. This battle involved people of every race, gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status. For example, the expansion of and restriction on citizenship is seen in the “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July” speech by Frederick Douglass, the United States Supreme Court opinion in Dred Scott v. Sanford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857), the passage of Reconstruction Amendments (13th - 15th) followed by Jim Crow restrictions and the “Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States” by Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

C: Processes, Rules and Laws

8.C.PR.2

Explain how the U.S. Constitution was interpreted and amended through the amendment process, legislative processes, judicial review, executive actions and Supreme Court Cases between 1789 – 1877.

Sometimes, the Constitution needs to be amended. There are a variety of ways for the Constitution to be interpreted and amended, which allows it to remain a viable living document. For example, Judicial Review was established by the United States Supreme Court Opinion in Marbury v. Madison, 5 2 U.S. 137 (1803). While the Constitution did not expressly allow the institution of slavery, the founding fathers did not expressly forbid it. The Dred Scott Decision did ultimately permit slavery, while the Emancipation Proclamation attempted to end slavery in rebelling areas. Eventually the 13th Amendment abolished the institution.

H: Change and Continuity

8.H.CH.1

Explain the role changing political, social and economic perspectives had on the lives of diverse groups of people in the Colonial Era.

The development of an American identity began in the Colonial Era. The colonies were made up of diverse people from immigrants from Europe to enslaved Africans to the indigenous people that inhabited the land. Diverse people led to diverse perspectives, which, in turn, often led to a variety of reform movements, new ideas and technologies. Consequently, this led to conflicting ideas about how the nation should move forward - with regards to issues of voting rights, religion, citizenship and the struggles of newly freed slaves, women, American Indians, European and Asian Immigrants. These concepts are addressed in documents such as The 1796 Farewell Address by George Washington, The Monroe Doctrine, and “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July” by Frederick Douglass.

H: Change and Continuity

8.H.CH.2

Analyze how social and ideological philosophies impacted various movements in the United States from the Colonial Era to Reconstruction from 1600-1877.

The development of an American identity began in the Colonial Era. The colonies were made up of diverse people from immigrants from Europe to enslaved Africans to the indigenous people that inhabited the land. Diverse people led to diverse perspectives, which, in turn, often led to a variety of reform movements, new ideas and technologies. Consequently, this led to conflicting ideas about how the nation should move forward - with regards to issues of voting rights, religion, citizenship and the struggles of newly freed slaves, women, American Indians, European and Asian Immigrants. These concepts are addressed in documents such as The 1796 Farewell Address by George Washington, The Monroe Doctrine, and “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July” by Frederick Douglass.

H: Change and Continuity

8.H.CH.3

Explain how political, social and economic perspectives in the United States led to the rise in sectionalism between 1840-1860.

The development of an American identity began in the Colonial Era. The colonies were made up of diverse people from immigrants from Europe to enslaved Africans to the indigenous people that inhabited the land. Diverse people led to diverse perspectives, which, in turn, often led to a variety of reform movements, new ideas and technologies. Consequently, this led to conflicting ideas about how the nation should move forward - with regards to issues of voting rights, religion, citizenship and the struggles of newly freed slaves, women, American Indians, European and Asian Immigrants. These concepts are addressed in documents such as The 1796 Farewell Address by George Washington, The Monroe Doctrine, and “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July” by Frederick Douglass.

H: Change and Continuity

8.H.CH.4

Evaluate the impact technological innovations made on agriculture, trade and commerce in the years leading up to the Civil War between 1840-1860.

The development of an American identity began in the Colonial Era. The colonies were made up of diverse people from immigrants from Europe to enslaved Africans to the indigenous people that inhabited the land. Diverse people led to diverse perspectives, which, in turn, often led to a variety of reform movements, new ideas and technologies. Consequently, this led to conflicting ideas about how the nation should move forward - with regards to issues of voting rights, religion, citizenship and the struggles of newly freed slaves, women, American Indians, European and Asian Immigrants. These concepts are addressed in documents such as The 1796 Farewell Address by George Washington, The Monroe Doctrine, and “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July” by Frederick Douglass.

H: Change and Continuity

8.H.CH.5

Explain examples of political, geographic, social and economic changes and consistencies in the different regions of the United States between 1860-1877.

The development of an American identity began in the Colonial Era. The colonies were made up of diverse people from immigrants from Europe to enslaved Africans to the indigenous people that inhabited the land. Diverse people led to diverse perspectives, which, in turn, often led to a variety of reform movements, new ideas and technologies. Consequently, this led to conflicting ideas about how the nation should move forward - with regards to issues of voting rights, religion, citizenship and the struggles of newly freed slaves, women, American Indians, European and Asian Immigrants. These concepts are addressed in documents such as The 1796 Farewell Address by George Washington, The Monroe Doctrine, and “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July” by Frederick Douglass.

H: Change and Continuity

8.H.CH.6

Analyze the impact of fundamental documents on the development of the United States.

The fundamental documents shall include but are not limited to:
•The Mayflower Compact
•The Declaration of Independence
•The Constitution of the United States
•The Federalist No. 1 (Alexander Hamilton)
•The Federalist Nos. 10 and 51 (James Madison)
•The June 8, 1789, Speech on Amendments to the Constitution of the United States by James Madison
•The first ten (10) amendments to the Constitution of the United States, also known as the Bill of Rights
•The 1796 Farewell Address by George Washington
•The United States Supreme Court opinion in Marbury v. Madison, 5 1 U.S. 137 (1803)
•The Monroe Doctrine by James Monroe
•What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? speech by Frederick Douglass
•The United States Supreme Court opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford, 6 60 U.S. 393 (1857)
•Emancipation Proclamation by Abraham Lincoln
•Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln
•Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States by Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton

H: Conflict and Compromise

8.H.CO.1

Explain how colonial resistance to British control led to the Revolutionary War.

The American colonies resisted British control. Because of various British actions, such as the Proclamation of 1763, Stamp Act, Sugar Act and Intolerable Acts, the colonists resisted British control and ultimately rebelled against Britain to establish a new nation as outlined in the Declaration of Independence.

H: Conflict and Compromise

8.H.CO.3

Analyze how economic, social, ideological and political changes led to sectional and national tensions, inspiring reform movements between 1840-1860.

As increasing sectional differences emerged between the North and South, reform movements, such as the Abolitionist Movement, Seneca Falls Convention and other social movements took place. These concepts are addressed in documents such as “What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?” by Frederick Douglass and “Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States” by Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage and Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

H: Conflict and Compromise

8.H.CO.4

Explain how sectionalism and slavery within the United States led to conflicts between 1820-1877.

As increasing sectional differences emerged, the disparity between regions grew and were influenced by differing cultural, geographic, economic and political factors and characteristics. For example, the small farm based economy in the New England Colonies differed from the plantation based economy in the Southern Colonies. These differences gave rise to different labor systems. The South was reliant on the institution of slavery while the North was reliant on wage labor and indentured servitude. This led to conflicts over issues such as the slave trade, the spread of slavery to new territories, abolition, human rights and, ultimately, the Civil War. These concepts are addressed in documents such as the Final Emancipation Proclamation and The Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln.

H: Change and Continuity

HS.UH.CH.2

Analyze changes to economic policies, the size of government and the power of government between 1890-1945.

As the nation changed, so did the demands of meeting the needs of the diverse population. For example, there were changes in infrastructure (roads, railroads) as well as changes to our Constitution which addressed the changing demography and economic needs of our nation. For example, expansion of government regulations in the Progressive period and New Deal reflected new challenges generated by an industrializing economy. These concepts are addressed in documents such as:

The August 31, 1910, New Nationalism speech by Theodore Roosevelt;
The January 11, 1944, State of the Union Address by Franklin D. Roosevelt

H: Change and Continuity

HS.UH.CH.7

Evaluate the impact of fundamental documents on the development of the United States.

The fundamental documents include but are not limited to the following:

•The September 18, 1895, Atlanta Exposition Address by Booker T. Washington;
•Of Booker T. Washington and Others by W.E.B. Du Bois;
•The United States Supreme Court opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896);
•The August 31, 1910, New Nationalism speech by Theodore Roosevelt;
•The January 11, 1944, State of the Union Address by Franklin D. Roosevelt;
•The United States Supreme Court opinions in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) and Brown v. Board of Education Topeka, 349 U.S. 294 (1955);
•Letter from Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr.;
•The August 28, 1963, I Have a Dream speech by Martin Luther King, Jr.; and
•A Time for Choosing by Ronald Reagan

H: Cause and Effect

HS.UH.CE.1

Analyze the political, economic and social impacts of industrialization on the United States between 1877-1945.

The identity of Americans and groups within the United States are complex and shaped by diverse factors including migration patterns, culture, economics, geography, and both internal and external forces. While there are continuities in the way Americans view themselves and each other, there are also shifts in perceptions, as the concept of citizenship expanded over time. Some of the many possible examples of the ways diverse groups viewed themselves and contributed to the identity of the United States can be seen in the following documents:

The September 18, 1895, Atlanta Exposition Address by Booker T Washington;
Of Booker T. Washington and Others by W.E.B. Du Bois;
The August 28, 1963, I Have a Dream speech by Martin Luther King, Jr.

H: Cause and Effect

HS.UH.CE.2

Analyze the events that caused the United States to emerge as a global power between 1890-1991.

Beginning at the turn of the twentieth century through the end of the twentieth century, the United States emerged as a global power. The United States benefited from industrial might and increased participation in global markets. Immigration to a relatively free and open society caused the population to grow, and the United States became a leader in technological advances, which improved the U.S. economy and citizens’ standards of living. Finally, in this period, the United States became an important actor in global conflicts and compromises, leaving behind its isolationist path and entering conflicts such as the Spanish American War, World War I, World War II and the Cold War and fighting proxy wars in places like Korea and Vietnam while also pioneering the formation of global governance and defense institutions like the United Nations and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). These concepts are addressed in documents such as:

A Time for Choosing by Ronald Reagan;
The January 11, 1944, State of the Union Address by Franklin D. Roosevelt

H: Cause and Effect

HS.UH.CE.5

Evaluate the ways in which groups facing discrimination worked to achieve expansion of rights and liberties from 1877-present.

Since 1877, various groups have worked to expand rights and liberties. These groups have worked to change legislation, amend the Constitution and improve daily lives for the American people. These groups and individuals participated in marches, protests and acts of civil disobedience to enact change and promote the expansion of rights in the United States. Suffrage movements, civil rights movements and reform movements all worked to improve civil liberties in the U.S. For example, the passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was a result of efforts by individuals and Congress to provide equal accommodations for Americans with disabilities. These concepts are addressed in documents such as:

Of Booker T. Washington and Others by W.E.B. Du Bois;
The United States Supreme Court opinions in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) and Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 349 U.S. 294 (1955);
Letter from Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr.;
The August 28, 1963, I Have a Dream speech by Martin Luther King, Jr.;
The September 18, 1895, Atlanta Exposition Address by Booker T. Washington;
The United States Supreme Court opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896)

H: Cause and Effect

HS.UH.CE.6

Analyze how global interactions impacted American culture and society from 1890- present.

U.S. global interactions have led to numerous cultural shifts. Immigration, for example, has influenced the United States by infusing each generation with new ideas and customs. As the strength of the U.S. economy grew, industry attracted workers from all over the world, changing American society as new ideas and customs were integrated. As the United States participated in global conflicts, there were changes in values and beliefs, and emerging prejudices led to changes in cultural norms. Global interactions also led to the development of trade agreements like the World Trade Organization (WTO) and North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and regulatory bodies like the Department of Homeland Security, which impacted society. The concepts are addressed in documents such as:

A Time for Choosing by Ronald Reagan;
The January 11, 1944, State of the Union Address by Franklin D. Roosevelt;
Letter from Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr.

H: Conflict and Compromise

HS.UH.CO.4

Analyze the conflicting ideologies and policies of the United States and Soviet Union and their impact, both domestically and globally, during the Cold War Era between 1945-1991.

The United States and the Soviet Union had fundamentally different ideologies concerning economics, political foundations and individual liberties. These differences led to the Cold War, which pitted these two ideological camps against one another on a global scale following WWII. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed for global influence, participated in proxy wars and created organizations of collective security, like NATO and the Warsaw Pact. This also led to policies at home, such as the creation of the House Un-American Activities Committee, and fear of the spread of communism. In the post- Cold War era, the United States played a role in global attempts at compromise and conflicts. The United States has been a part of many trade treaties, such as NAFTA, and other global compromises around the environment and disarmament. At the same time, the United States has participated in armed conflict as part of international peacekeeping forces in places like Bosnia and as part of international alliances fighting against terrorism around the world after 9/11. These concepts are addressed in documents such as:

A Time for Choosing by Ronald Reagan

H: Kentucky History

HS.UH.KH.1

Examine how Kentuckians influence and are influenced by major national developments in U.S. history from 1877-present.

Throughout U.S. history, Kentuckians have played a role in influencing national developments, such as, but not limited to, the following examples: Justice John Marshall Harlan was the dissenting opinion in the Berea College v. Kentucky and the United States Supreme Court opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896) cases setting a precedent that segregation was inherently unequal; Governor Breathitt was instrumental in the Civil Rights Movement nationally and in Kentucky and in the implementation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; Madeline McDowell Breckinridge fought for child labor laws and was critical in the women’s suffrage movement on a national scale; Sophia Alcorn was an advocate for people with disabilities and invented the Tadoma method for people who are deaf and blind to communicate; Willa Beatrice Brown was the first African American woman in the United States to earn a pilot’s license and was a lifelong civil rights advocate; Alice Allison Dunnigan was the first African American journalist to receive White House credentials.

Appendix 3: Revisions and Documents

Standard

Documents

4.C.CP.1 Describe the diverse forms of self-government used by various groups in Colonial America.

The Mayflower Compact

5.C.CP.2 Analyze the structure of the U.S. government, including separation of power and its system of checks and balances.

The Federalist Nos. 10 and 51 (James Madison)

5.C.PR.1 Evaluate whether various rules and laws promote the general welfare, using historical and contemporary examples.

The Constitution of the United States

5.C.KGO.1 Explain the roles and responsibilities of a Kentucky citizen.

The Constitution of the United States

5.E.MA.1 Describe why the government collects taxes and what goods and services it provides society.

The Constitution of the United States

5.E.MA.2 Explain how the United States developed into a market economy.

The Constitution of the United States

5.H.CH.2 Analyze the impact innovation and human ingenuity had on the development of the United States from Colonization to Constitution.

NOT SPECIFIED BY KRS 158.196: the inventions of Benjamin Franklin, such as the lightning rod, Franklin Stove and bifocals,

5.H.CO.1 Analyze the role conflict and collaboration played in the founding of the United States.

The Constitution of the United States

The Federalist No. 1 (Alexander Hamilton)

The Federalist Nos. 10 and 51 (James Madison)

The first ten (10) amendments to the Constitution of the United States, also known as the Bill of Rights

8.C.CP.1 Analyze the origin and purposes of rule of law, popular sovereignty, federalism, separation of powers and checks and balances.

The June 8, 1789, speech on amendments to the Constitution of the United States by James Madison

8.C.CP.2 Explain the origins, functions and structure of government, with reference to the Mayflower Compact, Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, Federalist Papers 1, 10, and 51, U.S. Constitution, Bill of Rights and other founding documents, and their impacts on citizens.

The June 8, 1789, speech on amendments to the Constitution of the United States by James Madison

8.C.CP.3 Explain how a system of checks and balances is intended to prevent a concentration of power in one branch.

The June 8, 1789, speech on amendments to the Constitution of the United States by James Madison

8.C.RR.1 Analyze the role of citizens in the U.S. political system, with attention to the definition of who is a citizen, expansion of that definition over time and changes in participation over time.

What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? speech by Frederick Douglass

The United States Supreme Court opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857)

Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States by Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton

8.C.RR.2 Analyze expansion of and restriction on citizenship and voting rights on diverse groups in the United States from the Colonial Era to Reconstruction from 1600-1877.

What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? speech by Frederick Douglass

The United States Supreme Court opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857)

Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States by Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton

8.C.RR.3 Analyze how groups in the United States have challenged Constitutional provisions, laws and court rulings denying them the rights of citizens.

What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? speech by Frederick Douglass

The United States Supreme Court opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857)

Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States by Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton

8.C.PR.2 Explain how the U.S. Constitution was interpreted and amended through the amendment process, legislative processes, judicial review, executive actions and Supreme Court Cases between 1789 – 1877.

The United States Supreme Court opinion in Marbury v. Madison, 5 U.S. 137 (1803)

8.H.CH.1 Explain the role changing political, social and economic perspectives had on the lives of diverse groups of people in the Colonial Era.

The 1796 Farewell Address by George Washington

The Monroe Doctrine by James Monroe

What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? speech by Frederick Douglass

8.H.CH.2 Analyze how social and ideological philosophies impacted various movements in the United States from the Colonial Era to Reconstruction from 1600-1877.

The 1796 Farewell Address by George Washington

The Monroe Doctrine by James Monroe

What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? speech by Frederick Douglass

8.H.CH.3 Explain how political, social and economic perspectives in the United States led to the rise in sectionalism between 1840-1860.

The 1796 Farewell Address by George Washington

The Monroe Doctrine by James Monroe

What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? speech by Frederick Douglass

8.H.CH.4 Evaluate the impact technological innovations made on agriculture, trade and commerce in the years leading up to the Civil War between 1840-1860.

The 1796 Farewell Address by George Washington

The Monroe Doctrine by James Monroe

What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? speech by Frederick Douglass

8.H.CH.5 Explain examples of political, geographic, social and economic changes and consistencies in the different regions of the United States between 1860-1877.

The 1796 Farewell Address by George Washington

The Monroe Doctrine by James Monroe

What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? speech by Frederick Douglass

8.H.CH.6 Analyze the impact of fundamental documents on the development of the United States.

The Mayflower Compact

The Declaration of Independence

The Constitution of the United States

The Federalist No. 1 (Alexander Hamilton)

The Federalist Nos. 10 and 51 (James Madison)

The June 8, 1789, Speech on Amendments to the Constitution of the United States by James Madison

The first ten (10) amendments to the Constitution of the United States, also known as the Bill of Rights

The 1796 Farewell Address by George Washington

The United States Supreme Court opinion in Marbury v. Madison, 5 1 U.S. 137 (1803)

The Monroe Doctrine by James Monroe

What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? speech by Frederick Douglass

The United States Supreme Court opinion in Dred Scott v. Sandford, 6 60 U.S. 393 (1857)

[Final] Emancipation Proclamation by Abraham Lincoln

Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln

Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States by Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton

8.H.CO.1 Explain how colonial resistance to British control led to the Revolutionary War.

The Declaration of Independence

8.H.CO.3 Analyze how economic, social, ideological and political changes led to sectional and national tensions, inspiring reform movements between 1840-1860.

What to the Slave is the Fourth of July? speech by Frederick Douglass

Declaration of Rights of the Women of the United States by Susan B. Anthony, Matilda Joslyn Gage, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton

8.H.CO.4 Explain how sectionalism and slavery within the United States led to conflicts between 1820-1877.

Final Emancipation Proclamation by Abraham Lincoln
Gettysburg Address by Abraham Lincoln

HS.UH.CH.2 Analyze changes to economic policies, the size of government and the power of government between 1890-1945.

The August 31, 1910, New Nationalism speech by Theodore Roosevelt

The January 11, 1944, State of the Union Address by Franklin D. Roosevelt

HS.UH.CH.7 Evaluate the impact of fundamental documents on the development of the United States.

The September 18, 1895, Atlanta Exposition Address by Booker T. Washington

Of Booker T. Washington and Others by W.E.B. Du Bois

The United States Supreme Court opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896)

The August 31, 1910, New Nationalism speech by Theodore Roosevelt

The January 11, 1944, State of the Union Address by Franklin D. Roosevelt

The United States Supreme Court opinions in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) and Brown v. Board of Education Topeka, 349 U.S. 294 (1955)

Letter from Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr.

The August 28, 1963, I Have a Dream speech by Martin Luther King, Jr.

A Time for Choosing by Ronald Reagan

HS.UH.CE.1 Analyze the political, economic and social impacts of industrialization on the United States between 1877-1945.

The September 18, 1895, Atlanta Exposition Address by Booker T Washington

Of Booker T. Washington and Others by W.E.B. Du Bois

The August 28, 1963, I Have a Dream speech by Martin Luther King, Jr.

HS.UH.CE.2 Analyze the events that caused the United States to emerge as a global power between 1890-1991.

The January 11, 1944, State of the Union Address by Franklin D. Roosevelt

A Time for Choosing by Ronald Reagan.

HS.UH.CE.5 Evaluate the ways in which groups facing discrimination worked to achieve expansion of rights and liberties from 1877-present.

The September 18, 1895, Atlanta Exposition Address by Booker T. Washington

The United States Supreme Court opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896)

Of Booker T. Washington and Others by W.E.B. Du Bois

The United States Supreme Court opinions in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) and Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 349 U.S. 294 (1955)

Letter from Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr.

The August 28, 1963, I Have a Dream speech by Martin Luther King, Jr.

HS.UH.CE.6 Analyze how global interactions impacted American culture and society from 1890- present.

The January 11, 1944, State of the Union Address by Franklin D. Roosevelt

Letter from Birmingham Jail by Martin Luther King, Jr

A Time for Choosing by Ronald Reagan.

HS.UH.CO.4 Analyze the conflicting ideologies and policies of the United States and Soviet Union and their impact, both domestically and globally, during the Cold War Era between 1945-1991.

A Time for Choosing by Ronald Reagan.

HS.UH.KH.1 Examine how Kentuckians influence and are influenced by major national developments in U.S. history from 1877-present.

The United States Supreme Court opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896)

Appendix 4: Recommended Historical Documents

We recommend that the Department of Education consider incorporating the following documents into KAS-SS, so as to fulfil the spirit of KRS 158.196’s Section 3 legislative mandate.

Founding Documents, Intellectual Background

Magna Carta (1215)

Petition of Right (1628)

English Bill of Rights (1689)

Toleration Act (1689)

John Locke, Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690)

Montesquieu, The Spirit of Laws (1748)

United States Documents

Articles, Laws, and Orders of Virginia (1610)

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut (1639)

Massachusetts Body of Liberties (1641)

Pennsylvania Charter of Privileges (1701),

John Woolman, Some Considerations on the Keeping of Negroes (1754)

John Adams, Braintree Resolves (1765)

Common Sense (1776)

Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776)

Massachusetts Constitution and Declaration of Rights (1780)

Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1786)

Northwest Ordinance (1787)

Anti-Federalist Papers: Brutus No. 1 (1787)

The Federal Farmer, Letter III (1787)

The Federalist Nos. 9 (Alexander Hamilton), 39 (James Madison), and 78 (Alexander Hamilton) (1787-88)

Benjamin Franklin, The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin (1791)

Thomas Jefferson, First Inaugural Address (1801)

Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, Volume I (1835) and Volume II (1839)

Abraham Lincoln, “Speech on the Dred Scott Decision” (1857)

Abraham Lincoln, “House Divided” speech (1858)

Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address (1865)

Niagara Movement Declaration of Principles (1905)

Theodore Roosevelt, “The Man with the Muck-rake,” speech (1906)

Woodrow Wilson, “Peace Without Victory,” speech (1917)

Schenck v. United States (1919)

Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes’ dissenting opinion in the case of Abrams v. United States (1919)

Herbert Hoover, Rugged Individualism (1928)

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, First Inaugural Address (1933)

Franklin Delano Roosevelt, “Four Freedoms” speech (1941

Justice Robert M. Jackson’s opinion for the Supreme Court in West Virginia State Board of Education v. Barnette (1943)

Learned Hand, The Spirit of Liberty (1944)

The Truman Doctrine (1947)

George Kennan, “The Sources of Soviet Conduct” (1947)

John F. Kennedy, Inaugural Address (1961)

Ronald Reagan, Berlin Wall Speech (1987)

Ronald Reagan, Speech at Moscow State University (1988)

George W. Bush, Second Inaugural Address (2005)

District of Columbia v. Heller (2008)

Dobbs v. Jackson Women's Health Organization (2022)

Kentucky Documents

Kentucky Constitution (1792. 1850, 1891, and significant amendments)

Kentucky Resolution (1799)

Henry Clay, American System speech (1824)

Cassius M. Clay, “Slavery: The Evil—The Remedy” (1843)

John Marshall Harlan, dissent, Civil Rights Cases (1883)

John Marshall Harlan, dissent, Pollock v. Farmers' Loan & Trust Co. (1895),

John Marshall Harlan, dissent, United States v. E. C. Knight Co. (1895),

John Marshall Harlan, majority opinion, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Co. v. City of Chicago (1897)

John Marshall Harlan, dissent, Lochner v. New York (1905),

John Marshall Harlan, dissent, and Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. United States (1911)


1 American Birthright: The Civics Alliance’s Model K-12 Social Studies Standards, Civics Alliance, https://civicsalliance.org/american-birthright/.

2 Kentucky Revised Statute (KRS) 158.196 [Instructional materials standards and concepts – Documents and speeches to be included.], https://apps.legislature.ky.gov/law/statutes/statute.aspx?id=53057&utm_medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery.

5 South Dakota Social Studies Standards (Proposed 8/15/22), https://doe.sd.gov/ContentStandards/documents/SS-Proposed.pdf.

7 Thomas Clouse, Education Academic Program Manager, Division of Program Standards. Office of Teaching and Learning, to David Randall, Executive Director, Civics Alliance, September 15, 2022.


Image: Wikimedia Commons, Public Domain

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